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The high cost of prescription drugs continues to be a top health priority for get viagra online the public. Policymakers at the federal and state level are pursuing a range of options to lower drug prices for Americans, one of which would allow for the safe importation of prescription drugs from Canada and other countries, based on evidence showing that people often pay more for medications in the U.S. Than elsewhere get viagra online. In an executive order issued July 2021, President Joe Biden directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to work with states to import prescription drugs from Canada, an approach that was put into place by the previous Administration and has bipartisan support among the general public (Figure 1).Figure 1. Majority of the Public Favors get viagra online Allowing Americans to Buy Prescription Drugs Imported from CanadaThese FAQs discuss recent efforts related to prescription drug importation, the history of this approach, challenges that previous efforts to carry out importation proposals have faced, and stakeholder views.1.

What is the current status of prescription drug importation?. Current law allows for the importation of certain drugs from Canada under defined, limited circumstances, and only if the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) certifies that importation poses no threat to the health and safety of the American public and will result in significant cost savings to the American consumer. In September 2020, the Trump Administration issued a final rule and final FDA guidance, creating two new pathways for the safe importation of drugs from Canada and other countries, and then-HHS Secretary Alex Azar certified get viagra online that importation of prescription drugs poses no risk to public health and safety and would result in significant cost savings.Soon after the rule was finalized, PhRMA and other parties filed a lawsuit challenging the rule based on safety and other concerns. In May 2021, the Biden Administration sought to dismiss this lawsuit, arguing that plaintiffs cannot show the final rule or the certification by the HHS Secretary has harmed them. Because the FDA has not authorized any state importation plan under the final rule, and there is no timeline for authorization, the Administration asserts that “possible future injuries to Plaintiffs’ members are overly speculative and not imminent.” The federal court has not yet responded to the Administration’s motion to dismiss the lawsuit.The Biden Administration’s position on this lawsuit has opened the door for states to move forward with drug importation plans, as discussed further below, and President Biden’s get viagra online recent executive order directly instructs the FDA to work with states to import prescription drugs from Canada.2.

Why is importation of prescription drugs from Canada being considered as a way to lower drug costs in the U.S.?. Many studies have shown that people in the United States often pay more for their prescription drugs than in other developed countries, including Canada. According to one get viagra online analysis of a subset of single-source brand-name drugs, Canadian drug prices are about 28% of the price in the United States, while another analysis of a broad range of drugs found that Canadian prices are 46% of those in the United States.Canada’s drug prices are generally lower than those in the United States because the Canadian government has various mechanisms to lower the cost of prescription drugs. Since 1987, the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (PMPRB) has regulated the price of patented (i.e., brand-name) drugs in Canada to ensure that they are not excessive. The PMPRB reviews the prices charged for drugs, and if the Board determines get viagra online the price of a drug is excessive, it can order a patentee to lower the price of a drug, including requiring a monetary payment for the excess revenue earned from the drug.3.

How does current U.S. Law regulate the importation of prescription drugs get viagra online from other countries?. In order for a drug to be marketed in the United States, it must first receive FDA approval and meet standards set forth in the Food and Drug Cosmetic (FD&C) Act of 1938. Any drug that is “unapproved,” meaning it does not meet these standards, is not eligible for importation. Currently, the only type of legally imported get viagra online drugs are those that are.

1) manufactured in foreign FDA-inspected facilities, the subject of an FDA-approved drug application, intended for use by U.S. Consumers, and imported into get viagra online the U.S. By the drug manufacturer, and 2) those that are U.S.-approved and manufactured in the U.S., sent abroad, then imported back into the U.S. Under rare circumstances such as for emergency medical purposes or in the case of product recalls. These importation regulations pertain only to the drug product itself, and are not related to the cost of imported products.In 2000, Congress enacted the Medicine Equity and Drug Safety (MEDS) Act, which added Section 804 to the FD&C get viagra online Act, to allow pharmacists and wholesalers to import prescription drugs directly from certain industrialized countries, including Canada, subject to specified limitations and safeguards.

The MEDS Act allows such importation, subject to an important requirement. To do get viagra online so, the HHS Secretary must demonstrate that the program. €œposes no additional risk to the public’s health and safety,” and “results in a significant reduction in the cost of covered products to the American consumer.”The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) amended the Section 804 importation language that was added by the MEDS Act. The MMA specifies that wholesalers and pharmacists can only import prescription drugs from Canada, not other industrialized countries. The MMA also authorizes the Secretary to terminate such importation programs if they do not meet safety standards or result in a significant reduction in costs for consumers get viagra online.

The MMA also requires the HHS Secretary to issue regulations that would grant waivers to individuals to import drugs for personal use under certain circumstances.Importation of prescription drugs under conditions set forth first by the MEDS Act, and then by the MMA, could allow wholesalers and pharmacists to obtain FDA-approved drugs at lower prices than are available in the U.S. By purchasing them from foreign sellers, and pass these savings get viagra online on to U.S. Consumers.4. Why have prescription drug importation get viagra online proposals not been implemented in the past?. Up until the Trump Administration’s final rule authorizing importation of prescription drugs from Canada, no previous HHS Secretaries have certified an implementation plan for importation, primarily due to safety concerns.

According to the HHS taskforce report on drug importation issued in December 2004, the drug distribution network for prescription drugs in the U.S. Is a “closed” get viagra online system that provides the American public with multiple levels of protection against receiving unsafe or poor quality medications. Importation, according to the taskforce report, would create an opening in this closed system that would increase the opportunity for counterfeit, substandard, or unapproved products to enter the supply chain, introducing additional risks to American consumers.The report also noted some potential risks and challenges with legalizing importation, including but not limited to. The increasing difficulty of monitoring and ensuring the safety of imported get viagra online drugs. The additional cost and resources needed for ensuring safety, which may reduce potential savings.

The possibility that total savings would be significantly less than international price comparisons suggest. And the likelihood that there would be a reduction in research and development of get viagra online new drugs. Furthermore, many former HHS Secretaries and FDA commissioners have voiced concerns in recent years about FDA’s ability to assure the safety, effectiveness, and quality of imported drugs. According to a 2017 letter to Congress signed by four former FDA commissioners:“…Allowing importation of drugs purported to be manufactured overseas in FDA-inspected facilities and drugs purported to be manufactured domestically for export to other countries and reimported from those countries to the United States cannot meet the requirements under the existing closed drug manufacturing and distribution system because the drugs could not be tracked and certified by the manufacturer…Such a program would be very different from importation of consumer products like watches or clothing, where consumers can more easily discern quality get viagra online and where there are no health consequences of fake products. It could lead to a host of unintended consequences and undesirable effects, including serious harm stemming from the use of adulterated, substandard, or counterfeit drugs.

It could also undermine American confidence in what has proven to be a highly successful system for assuring drug safety.”5. What drug get viagra online importation plans have been finalized?. In September 2020, the Trump Administration issued a final rule and final FDA guidance for the importation of prescription drugs. The final rule would authorize states, territories and Indian tribes, and in certain future circumstances wholesalers and pharmacists, to implement time-limited importation programs, known as Section 804 Implementation Programs or SIPs, for importation of get viagra online prescription drugs from Canada only. States, territories, and Indian tribes could submit proposals to the HHS Secretary to manage these SIPs and act as SIP sponsors.In order for a proposal to be approved by HHS, a SIP sponsor would need to specify.

The drugs it seeks get viagra online to import. The foreign seller in Canada that would purchase the drug directly from its manufacturer. The importer in the U.S. That would buy the drug directly from the foreign seller in Canada get viagra online. The re-labeler or re-packager of the drug itself that would ensure the drug meets all labeling requirements in the U.S..

The qualifying lab that would conduct testing of get viagra online the drug for authenticity and degradation. And steps that would be taken by the SIP to ensure the supply chain is secure. SIPs would initially be authorized for 2-year periods with the possibility of 2-year extensions.Each SIP sponsor would also be subject to post-importation requirements, including providing FDA with data and information on the SIP’s cost savings to American consumers.The final FDA guidance specifies how manufacturers can import and market FDA-approved drugs in the U.S. That were get viagra online manufactured abroad and intended to be marketed and authorized for sale in a foreign country. Using this approach, a manufacturer may be able to obtain an additional National Drug Code (NDC) for drugs imported into the U.S.

The stated rationale is that “in recent years, multiple manufacturers have stated (either publicly or in statements to the Administration) that they wanted to offer lower get viagra online cost versions but could not readily do so because they were locked into contracts with other parties in the supply chain. This pathway would highlight an opportunity for manufacturers to use importation to offer lower-cost versions of their drugs.”6. Which drugs would be covered under the new importation plans?. Under the final rule, get viagra online which allows states and other entities to facilitate importation of drugs from Canada, only drugs that are currently marketed in the U.S. Would be eligible for importation.

As under current law, get viagra online certain types of drugs are excluded from the definition of a prescription drug eligible for importation including. Controlled substances, biological products (including insulin), infused drugs, intravenously injected drugs, and inhaled drugs during surgery. Furthermore, drugs get viagra online that are subject to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS), which are high-risk products with serious safety concerns, such as opioids, are not eligible for importation.Under the final FDA guidance, which allows manufacturers to import drugs to the U.S. That were manufactured and intended for sale in other countries (not limited to Canada), prescription drugs, including biological products excluded under the final rule, could be imported and made available to patients. These drugs must also currently be marketed in the U.S.

To be get viagra online eligible.7. What is the estimated savings for these importation plans?. The potential get viagra online cost savings from the final rule are unknown. In the final rule itself, and in FDA’s full final regulatory impact analysis, the Trump Administration did not provide an estimate of the expected savings. The final regulatory analysis noted that responses by other stakeholders, such as Canadian regulatory agencies and drug manufacturers, could impact the potential benefits of this program.The Trump Administration did not release an estimate of potential savings for importation in the FDA guidance for industry.8.

What are states currently doing regarding get viagra online importation?. Some states have been actively pursuing legislative action to promote the importation of prescription drugs. Several states, including Florida, Vermont, Colorado, Maine, New Mexico, and New Hampshire get viagra online have enacted laws establishing importation programs for prescription drugs from Canada. In order for any importation plan to go into effect, the HHS Secretary must certify that it meets the safety and cost saving requirements set forth in Section 804 of the FD&C Act. Under each state’s respective laws to establish an importation program, they are required to submit a proposal to HHS to demonstrate how its program will meet those safety and cost saving requirements.

Thus far, no state plan has been certified.Florida, Vermont, Colorado, and Maine have taken action to become the first states to implement get viagra online importation plans. In August 2019, Florida officially submitted its importation proposal to HHS (predating the previous Administration’s rule for state importation plans). Under Florida’s importation plan, the program would be overseen by the state’s Agency for Health Care Administration get viagra online (AHCA) through a vendor who would handle the operation of the program and ensure importers are following all state and federal laws relating to importation. Eligible importers would be limited to wholesalers or pharmacists who dispense prescription drugs on behalf of public payers, including Medicaid, the Department of Corrections, and the Department for Children and Families. In June 2020, Florida’s AHCA released an “Invitation to Negotiate” for the state’s vendor bid system, for assistance with implementation of the importation program, and in December 2020, the get viagra online AHCA contracted with a vendor to administer the importation program.

The governor of Florida has called on the Biden Administration to approve the state’s plan, citing projections that it could “potentially save the state between $80 to $150 million in the first year alone.”Vermont submitted its importation proposal to HHS in November 2019. Vermont’s plan primarily differs from Florida’s in that wholesalers would import drugs on behalf of both commercial plans and public payers, rather than just public payers.Colorado submitted its importation proposal in March 2020, and in January 2021, released an invitation to negotiate with vendors to implement its importation program. Bids were get viagra online due in late April and the contract is set to be awarded later in 2021. New Mexico and Maine have also submitted importation plans for HHS approval. New Hampshire is also in the get viagra online process of developing importation plans for HHS approval, and according to the state’s law, New Hampshire had until February 1, 2021 to submit its plan.

North Dakota passed a bill that requires a study on the potential impacts of prescription drug importation. Other states are also considering legislation that would facilitate drug importation from Canada, but thus far, none have been approved by HHS.9. Under what circumstances can individuals legally import drugs from other get viagra online countries, like Canada?. In most circumstances, it is illegal for individuals to import FDA-approved drugs from other countries for personal use. However, based on changes enacted by the MMA, personal importation of prescription drugs that have not been approved by the FDA for use in the get viagra online U.S.

Is permitted on a case-by-case basis. Under this statutory authority, FDA has put out guidance that lays out certain circumstances where importation of non-FDA approved drugs for personal use might be allowed. For example, personal importation is generally allowed if the treatment is for a serious condition, there is no get viagra online effective treatment available in the U.S., and there is no commercialization of the drug for U.S. Residents. Typically, only a three-month supply is allowed, and individuals most confirm in writing that the drug is for personal use and provide information about the get viagra online physician responsible for their treatment.There appears to be little enforcement by the FDA of the ban against importing FDA-approved drugs for personal use.

Even if the personal importation of a drug is technically illegal, current law directs the FDA to exercise discretion in permitting personal importation of drugs when the product is “clearly for personal use, and does not appear to present an unreasonable risk to the user,” which is reinforced in FDA guidelines.The Trump Administration’s executive order from July 2020, which directed the HHS Secretary to finalize rulemaking in regard to states importing certain drugs from Canada, also directed HHS to take action to allow individuals to import prescription drugs from foreign countries as well as permit insulin products that were manufactured in the United States and sent abroad to be reimported to the United States. In response, the previous Administration issued two requests for proposals, and HHS and get viagra online FDA started accepting proposals for these two pathways in September 2020. However, the Biden Administration did not receive any proposals to be implemented via either of these pathways, and in June 2021, the Biden Administration formally withdrew both requests for proposals.10. How do stakeholders and the public view these importation plans?. Many stakeholders have expressed reservations about the get viagra online feasibility of the current importation plans.

Prime Minister Trudeau stated that ensuring the safe and adequate supply of prescription drugs for Canadians is his first priority. However, he also said the Canadian government will take into account the actions of the United get viagra online States and may be able to provide help to the US and other countries. The Government of Canada stated that it would be unable to meet the needs of the U.S. Market without impacting access to medications for Canadians. The Canadian government also expressed concern that this policy would create drug shortages in Canada, and issued an order in November 2020 prohibiting the distribution of drugs that could cause or get viagra online exacerbate a shortage.As mentioned above, industry groups such as PhRMA, as well as the Partnership for Safe Medicines and the Council for Affordable Health Coverage, sued the Trump Administration to keep the first importation plan under the final rule from going into effect, arguing that importation would weaken safeguards protecting America’s drug supply, expose Americans to substandard and counterfeit drugs, and that the additional resources required to ensure the safety of drugs from abroad would outweigh any potential savings for patients.

In addition to its lawsuit challenging the final rule, PhRMA has also filed citizens petitions challenging the state SIP applications submitted to HHS by Florida and New Mexico.Some organizations also submitted comments for the importation pathway described in the final FDA guidance. Despite their get viagra online support for the flexibility to sell drugs under different NDC codes, PhRMA had specific concerns with guidance, including that NDC flexibility alone is not enough to lower prices for consumers. The American Medical Association (AMA) and APhA also expressed concern with the FDA guidance, noting the potential for unintended consequences, including increased costs for patients and patient and pharmacy confusion, leading to disruptions in patient care.Other stakeholders, however, have expressed support for allowing prescription drug importation, including AARP, the AMA, National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB), and Patients for Affordable Drugs Now, although some of these groups expressed concerns about specific aspects of the importation plan at the proposed rule stage. Patients for Affordable Drugs Now said it was pleased the Administration had opened the door for importation, but noted that it is not a solution for lowering drug prices for the majority of Americans.The American public is generally in favor of importation. According to KFF polling from October 2019, 78% of the public favors get viagra online allowing Americans to buy prescription drugs imported from licensed Canadian pharmacies.

This proposal has broad support across party lines – 75% of Democrats, 82% of Independents, and 75% of Republicans favor drug importation from Canada (Figure 1). However, it not clear to what extent public opinion would shift if presented with arguments for or against importation.The American public also supports virtually all proposals to lower prescription drug costs, including the government negotiating with drug companies, and believes lowering prescription drug prices should be a top legislative priority for Congress.About This TrackerThis tracker provides the number of get viagra online confirmed cases and deaths from novel erectile dysfunction by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) erectile dysfunction Resource Center’s erectile dysfunction treatment Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) erectile dysfunction Disease (erectile dysfunction treatment-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About erectile dysfunction treatment get viagra online erectile dysfunctionIn late 2019, a new erectile dysfunction emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as erectile dysfunction treatment, have since been reported across around the globe.

On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the viagra represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health get viagra online emergency for the United States.Global Health Legislation During the 117th Congress(as of Aug. 2, 2021)TitleDate IntroducedBill #SponsorStatusTopicSummary of Global Health-Related ProvisionsAbortion is Health Care Everywhere Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the use of funds for comprehensive reproductive health care services, and for other purposes.3/9/2021H.R. 1670Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-IL-9)Referred to HFACAbortion, Helms amendmentIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding safe abortion and working to end unsafe abortion. Repeals the Helms Amendment (which prohibits the use of foreign assistance to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortion). States that notwithstanding any other provision of law, certain funds may be used to provide comprehensive reproductive health care services, including abortion services, training, and equipment.Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act of 2021To establish an interagency One Health Program, and for other purposes.3/18/2021S. 861Sen. Tina Smith (D-MN)Read twice and referred to S.

HELPOne Health, global health securityRequires the heads of HHS, USDA, USAID, DoD, and certain other agencies to develop, publish, and submit to Congress a national One Health Framework for coordinated federal activities under the One Health Program not later than one year after enactment. Among other things, states the framework must describe existing efforts and contain recommendations for building upon and complementing the activities of the CDC, the FDA, USAID, NIH, and certain others and also establish specific federal goals and priorities and describe specific activities required to achieve these. Requires the submission of an addendum to the framework not later than three years after its original submission, describing progress in advancing these activities. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as necessary to develop the framework above. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress not later than two years after the addendum is submitted, detailing existing collaborative efforts among certain agencies for this purpose and containing an evaluation of the framework and its specified activities.American Medical Investment Generating Overseas Security Act(AMIGOS Act)To prohibit the President from taking any action to support the waiver of obligations of members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment–19 unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment–19, and for other purposes.5/14/2021H.R.

3236Maria Elvira Salazar (R-FL-27)Referred to HFAC and H. Ways and MeansTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, erectile dysfunction treatmentsStates the President may not take any action to support waiver of obligations of WRO members under the TRIPS agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to such. Requires the President to allocate excess U.S. erectile dysfunction treatments in a specified order of priority, with certain exceptions, and to monitor the allocation of such to ensure assisted governments provide treatments to their peoples in a timely manner and do not otherwise withhold them. Requires such treatments provided to foreign countries to be marked as assistance from the American people or the U.S.

Government and to include a depiction of the flag of the U.S. If appropriate.American Rescue Plan Act of 2021To provide for reconciliation pursuant to title II of S. Con. Res. 5.2/24/2021H.R.

1319Rep. John Yarmuth (D-KY-3)Became law (P.L. 117-2)erectile dysfunction treatment, Global FundSee KFF summary.American Values ActTo permanently enact certain appropriations Act restrictions on the use of funds for abortions and involuntary sterilizations, and for other purposes.2/4/2021S. 239Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, involuntary sterilization amendment, Siljander amendment, Kemp-Kasten amendment, Peace Corps provision, Helms amendment, Biden amendmentAmends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to codify in permanent law the Siljander amendment, which prohibits the use of funds to lobby for or against abortion, and the Kemp-Kasten amendment, which prohibits funding any organization or program, as determined by the President, that supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization.

Restates the Helms amendment, the Involuntary Sterilization amendment (which prohibits the use of funds to pay for involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide a financial incentive to anyone to undergo sterilization), and the Biden amendment (which states that funds may not be used for biomedical research related to methods of or the performance of abortion or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning) that are already in permanent law. Also amends the Peace Corps Act to codify in permanent law the Peace Corps provision, which prohibits Peace Corps funding from paying for an abortion for a Peace Corps volunteer or trainee, except in cases where the life of the woman is endangered by pregnancy or in cases of rape or incest. In the past these have been included only in annual State-Foreign Operations appropriations language. See also the KFF fact sheet on FP/RH statutory requirements and policies and the KFF explainer on UNFPA funding and Kemp-Kasten.Binational Health Strategies Act of 2021To amend the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission Act, with respect to preparedness for erectile dysfunction treatment–19 and other infectious diseases in the border region, and for other purposes.3/03/2021H.R. 1538Rep..

Veronica Escobar (D-TX-16)Referred to H. Energy and HFACMexicoAuthorizes and directs the President to seek to begin negotiations with Mexico to amend an existing agreement addressing infectious disease preparedness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area, with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment and other infectious diseases, specifically requiring the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to submit a report on the border area’s response to erectile dysfunction treatment and requiring it to also develop and publicly publish a binational strategic plan that addresses how the area should strengthen its erectile dysfunction treatment response, sharing relevant health data, and how a erectile dysfunction treatment should be disbursed throughout the area, among other things. Requires the Commission to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of the strategic plan and then to submit a report on actions taken each year. Requires the Commission to develop and publish a plan to prepare and respond to infectious diseases (other than erectile dysfunction treatment) within the border area, to update the plan at least once every three years for as long as necessary, and to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S.

And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of this plan, with a report on actions taken each year required to be submitted.BLUE Pacific ActTo establish a comprehensive, long-term United States strategy and policy for the Pacific Islands, and for other purposes.5/4/2021H.R. 2967Rep. Ed Case (D-HI-1)Referred to HFAC, H. Ways and Means, H. Natural ResourcesPublic health capacity building, erectile dysfunction treatment, gender-based violenceStates U.S.

Policy is to develop and commit to a comprehensive, multifaceted, and principled U.S. Policy in the Pacific Islands that, among other things, assists the Pacific Islands in preventing and containing the spread of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. Requires the USAID Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of States, to develop and implement a strategy to assist the Pacific Islands in improving public health outcomes and building public health capacity, including in response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. Requires the strategy include programming to address maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive health, gender-based violence, food security and nutrition, NCDs, NTDs, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, and zoonotic and emerging infectious disease threats, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), health system strengthening, and other activities. Requires a report not later than 180 days after enactment with strategy.

Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million for each FY22-FY26 to carry out these efforts. Requires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to develop and implement an initiative to encourage and support efforts by the Pacific Island to reduce and combat gender-based violence.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/17/2021H.R. 3271Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA-8)Referred to H. Energy and CommerceClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S.

And other nations. Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan.

Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/19/2021S. 1702Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to S. HELPClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S.

And other nations. Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan.

Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Curbing China’s treatment Diplomacy ActTo prioritize the international distribution of erectile dysfunction treatment doses, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.4362Rep. Carlos Gimenez (R-FL-26)Referred to HFACerectile dysfunction treatment, treatmentsRequires the Secretary of States to prioritize, in carrying out the international distribution of erectile dysfunction treatment doses, distribution to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies, subject first to Administration certification to Congress that it has determined all Americans have been afforded ample opportunity to be fully vaccinated against erectile dysfunction treatment. Requires the Secretary to ensure that not less than 25% of the total number of erectile dysfunction treatment doses intended for international distribution are reserved for and distributed to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies and states the Secretary may not distribute any doses to other recipients or countries until the above have each received at least a first shipment of their reserved doses. States the Secretary may not distribute erectile dysfunction treatment doses to any country which has a government that has been determined to have engaged in systemic or widespread human rights abuses.

Terminates five days after the date on which the Secretary determines the above have each achieved 40% vaccination rates of their respective populations.Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2022(State/Foreign Ops – SFOPS Approps)Making appropriations for the Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R. 4373Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Passed House, received in the SenateAppropriationsSee KFF summary. Includes the text of the Global Health, Empowerment, and Rights (Global HER) Act (H.R. 556), which codifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan.

2021, see KFF explainer). Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2022(Labor/HHS – LHHS Approps)Making appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/19/2021H.R. 4502Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT-3)Passed HouseAppropriationsSee KFF summary.Global Autism ActTo establish a Global Autism Assistance Program.6/24/2021H.R. 4160Rep.

Christopher Smith (R-NJ-4)Referred to HFACAutismEstablishes a health and education grant program known as the Global Autism Assistance Program at USAID to support activities focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in developing countries and to establish a program, known as Train the Trainers, to train health and education professionals working with children with ASD in developing countries. Outlines designation of eligible regions and selection of implementing NGO and activities it may carry out with the grant. Requires the implementing NGO to establish a Project Advisory Board to review local applications for content and appropriateness. To carry out this program, requires the USAID Administrator to allocate amounts that have been appropriated or otherwise made available to USAID. Requires an annual report on activities.Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021H.R.

556Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S.

Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021S. 142Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer).

States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health Security Act of 2021To authorize a comprehensive, strategic approach for United States foreign assistance to developing countries to strengthen global health security, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 391Rep.

Gerald Connolly (D-VA-11)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, global health emergenciesStates it is U.S. Policy to promote and invest in global health security and viagra preparedness as a core national security interest. Establishes a Global Health Security Agenda Interagency Review Council, designates members, responsibilities, and frequency of meetings. Designates a U.S. Coordinator for Global Health Security responsible for coordination of the interagency process for responding to global health security emergencies.

Express Sense of Congress that the President should consider appointing an individual with significant background and expertise in public health or emergency response management to such position. Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy, its implementation (including agency-specific plans), and an annual report on status of implementation. Directs the Secretary of State, Treasury Secretary, USAID Administrator, and HHS Secretary, among others, to seek to enter into negotiations with donors, relevant U.N. Agencies (including WHO), and other stakeholders to establish a fund for global health security and viagra preparedness as a multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism.

Describes Fund’s Advisory Board, purpose, Executive Board and its makeup and duties. Creates a Coordinator of U.S. Government activities to advance global health security, who shall be appointed by the President to represent the U.S. On the Executive Board. Outlines eligible partner country definition and Fund program objectives, supported activities, administration, including appointment of an Administrator appointed by the Executive Board, and transparency and accountability requirements.

Requires reports to Congress on the Fund including a 6 month status report and then annual reports after the Fund’s establishment. And authorizes U.S. Contributions to the Fund with a limit that the U.S. Share not exceed 33% of total contributions to the Fund cumulatively.Global Malnutrition Prevention and Treatment Act of 2021To advance targeted and evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of global malnutrition and to improve the coordination of such programs, and for other purposes.07/26/2021H.R. 4693Rep.

Michael McCaul (R-TX-10)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote)MalnutritionAuthorizes the USAID Administrator to support efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition globally, including by targeting resources and nutrition interventions to support the most vulnerable populations susceptible to severe malnutrition, including children under the age of 5 and pregnant and lactating women. Directs the Administrator and others to coordinate with bilateral and multilateral donors, governments of partner countries, U.N. Agencies, and others to prevent and treat malnutrition globally. Requires the Administrator and others to seek to leverage additional resources to this end by increasing interagency cooperation among relevant departments and agencies represented in the Global Nutrition Coordination Plan. Requires the selection of priority countries and outlines criteria.

Express Sense of Congress that efforts to undertake nutrition interventions in countries not selected as priority countries should continue. Authorizes the establishment of the Nutrition Leadership Council within USAID and outlines its duties and membership. Requires the development of an implementation plan. Requires an annual progress report for five years.Global viagra Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021H.R.

3424Rep. Grace Meng (D-NY-6)Referred to HFACviagra, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security, biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with viagra potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Global viagra Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021S.1737Sen. Chris Coons (D-DE)Read twice and referred to SFRCviagra, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security,biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with viagra potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level.

Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/9/2021S. 1996Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to.

Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S. Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. And expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes.

6/8/2021H.R. 3800Rep. Dina Titus (D-NV-1)Referred to HFAC, H. JudiciaryLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to.

Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S. Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. Expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.

And repeals the Mexico City policy by removing certain limitations on eligibility for foreign assistance.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021H.R. 3373Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Referred to HFAC, H. Veterans’ Affairs, H. Natural Resources, H.

Armed Services, H. Financial Services, H. Judiciary, H. Transportation and Infrastructure, H. Homeland SecurityPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S.

Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues. Requires a report on these efforts annually. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021S.

1774Sen. Brian Schatz (D-HI)Read twice and referred to SFRCPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues. Requires a report on these efforts annually.

Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/22/2021H.R. 1201Rep. Alan Lowenthal (D-CA-47)Referred to HFACLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector.

Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/24/2021S. 424Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector.

Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International viagra Preparedness and erectile dysfunction treatment Response Act of 2021To improve global health, and for other purposes.6/24/2021S. 2297Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Ordersviagra preparedness, erectile dysfunction treatment, treatments, WHO, health systems strengthening, CEPI, global health security, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and malariaRequires a report describing certain foreign assistance obligated/expended under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 and a plan for certain remaining funds. Requires development of a strategy to expand access to, and accelerate the global distribution of, erectile dysfunction treatments to other countries.

Requires a report that assesses the global humanitarian response to erectile dysfunction treatment and outlines specific elements of the U.S. Government’s country-level response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. In the event of an infectious disease outbreak outside the U.S. With viagra potential, states the President should designate the Department of State to serve as the lead for diplomatic engagement and related foreign policy efforts, USAID to serve as the key lead agency for design and implementation of the U.S. International response, relief, and recovery assistance, and the CDC to serve as the public health lead for the international response such as building up (in coordination with USAID) emergency operation centers.

Allows certain foreign assistance funding to be used to support USAID disaster surge capacity. Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy and report. Authorizes to be established a committee on global health security and viagra and biological threats within the National Security Council (NSC) led by the Special Advisor for Global Health Security of the NSC. Within the Department of State, establishes a Special Representative for U.S.

International activities to advance global health security and diplomacy overseas, to be appointed by the President and report to the Secretary of State and to lead in developing a global viagra prevention, preparedness and response framework. Authorizes the Representative to transfer and allocate certain U.S. Foreign assistance funding to the relevant departments and agencies implementing the U.S. Global health security strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $3 billion for the five-year period beginning Oct.

1, 2022, to support enhancing preparedness in partner countries, replenishing the USAID Emergency Reserve Fund, U.S. Contributions to the World Bank Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Multi-Donor Fund, and U.S. Contributions to a new multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism for global health security and viagra prevention and preparedness (see “the Fund” below). Requires U.S. Global health program leadership identify areas of collaboration and coordination to ensure that such activities contribute to health systems strengthening.

Directs the Secretary of State, with the USAID Administrator, to work with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the treatment Alliance, bilateral donors, and others to develop shared core indicators for strengthened health systems. Authorizes the U.S. To participate in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Expresses Sense of Congress that the President should make an immediate contribution to CEPI of $300 million to expand research and development of treatments to combat the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment variants. Requires an annual National Intelligence Estimate (for five years) regarding the risks posed to the national security interests of the U.S.

By the emergence, reemergence, and overseas transmission of pathogens with viagra potential. Requires the Secretary of State and others to work with WHO and other key stakeholders to establish or strengthen effective early warning systems for infectious disease threats with epidemic and viagra potential. Directs the Secretary of State, with the HHS Secretary, to work with WHO and like-minded member states to adopt an approach toward assessing infectious disease threats under the International Health Regulations (2005) for the WHO to identify and transparently communicate on an ongoing basis varying levels of risk leading up to, and during and after, a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declaration. Directs the Secretary of State and others to seek to enter into negotiations to establish “the Fund;” authorizes the President to make available for U.S. Contributions to the Fund such funds as may be appropriated or otherwise made available for such purpose.

Limits the U.S. Contribution to the Fund to not exceed 33% of the total contributions from all sources.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021H.R. 3988Rep. Theodore Deutch (D-FL-22)Referred to HFACMental health, children in adversity, erectile dysfunction treatmentExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group.

Describes the Group’s duties and members. States U.S. Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on programming.

Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S. Foreign assistance.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021S. 2105Sen. Robert Casey (D-PA)Read twice and referred to SFRCMental health, children in adversity, erectile dysfunction treatmentExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group.

Describes the Group’s duties and members. States U.S. Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on programming.

Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S. Foreign assistance.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act)To establish a program to oversee the global erectile dysfunction treatment response and prepare for future viagras, and for other purposes.6/8/2021H.R. 3778Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL-8)Referred to HFAC and H. Energy and Commerceerectile dysfunction treatment, global health security, viagra preparedness and responseEstablishes the viagra preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S.

Global health response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra and protect Americans from the emergence of erectile dysfunction treatment variants and other pathogens with viagra potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future viagras. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future viagras. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S.

Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally.

Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act) To establish a program to oversee the global erectile dysfunction treatment response and prepare for future viagras, and for other purposes.6/8/2021S. 1976Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR)Read twice and referred to SFRCerectile dysfunction treatment, global health security, viagra preparedness and responseEstablishes the viagra preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra and protect Americans from the emergence of erectile dysfunction treatment variants and other pathogens with viagra potential.

Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future viagras. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future viagras. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S.

treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S.

Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Preventing Foreign Attempts To Erode Healthcare Innovation ActTo prohibit the use of funds to support a measure at the World Trade Organization waiving intellectual property rights, and for other purposes.5/18/2021S. 1683Sen. Tim Scott (R-SC)Read twice and referred to S. FinanceTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, erectile dysfunction treatmentsExpresses Sense of Congress that U.S. Should continue to promote strong international [sic] property rights internationally and that it is in the national interest of the U.S.

To oppose efforts to transfer U.S. Intellectual property and technology to China or other countries seeking to profit off U.S. Investments. Prohibits use of funds to support, allow, or facilitate the negotiation or approval of the TRIPS waiver for the prevention, containment, and treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment proposed by India and South Africa or any other measure at the WTO to waive intellectual property rights.Preventing Future viagras Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/4/2021H.R. 151Rep.

Mike Quigley (D-IL-5)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy and Commerce, H. Judiciary, H. Ways and Means, H. Financial Services, H.

Natural ResourcesGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities.

Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Preventing Future viagras Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/25/2021S. 37Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX)Read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement.

Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities. Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems.

Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021H.R. 534Rep. Virginia Foxx (R-NC-5)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021.

See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S. To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021S. 137Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021.

See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S. To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Reach Every Mother and Child ActTo amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to implement policies to end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths globally.4/29/2021S. 1451Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)Read twice and referred to SFRCMaternal health, child healthIncludes statement of U.S. Policy to establish and implement a coordinated, integrated, and comprehensive strategy to end preventable child and maternal deaths and ensure healthy and productive lives.

Requires the establishment and implementation of a five-year comprehensive strategy to contribute toward the global goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths by 2030. States the President should designate a Child and Maternal Survival Coordinator and describes their duties. Requires an annual report on progress.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/28/2021H.R. 3576Rep. Katherine Clark (D-MA-5)Referred to HFACState Dept.

Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/26/2021S.

1864Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning.

Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Robust International Response to viagra ActTo provide support for a robust global response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.2/11/2021H.R. 986Rep. Jesus “Chuy” Garcia (D-IL-4)Referred to H. Financial Serviceserectile dysfunction treatmentDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S.

Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Securing America From Epidemics Act(SAFE Act) To authorize United States participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and for other purposes.3/23/2021H.R. 2118Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCResearch &. Development (R&D), global health security, viagra, epidemicAuthorizes U.S. Participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI).

Reports to Congress required to be submitted by the President not later than 180 days after enactment of the Act and to outline planned U.S. Contributions to CEPI, the manner and extent to which the U.S. Will participate in the governance of CEPI, and how participation in CEPI supports relevant U.S. Strategies and programs in health security and biodefense, among other things. Authorizes certain appropriated funding to be made available for U.S.

Contributions to CEPI.Strategic Competition Act of 2021To address issues involving the People’s Republic of China. 4/15/2021S. 1169Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orderserectile dysfunction treatment, health cooperation, WHO, global health security, abortion, forced sterilization, debt reliefExpresses sense of Congress that the U.S. Government should encourage other foreign governments to use the official and scientific names for the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.

States U.S. Policy is to deepen cooperation between and among the U.S., Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia, including through scientific and health partnerships. Expresses sense of Congress that recent pledge from the first-ever Quad (Australia, India, Japan, U.S.) leaders meeting on March 12, 2021, to respond to the economic and health impacts of erectile dysfunction treatment, including expanding treatment production and equitable access, further advances cooperation among Quad nations. States it is U.S. Policy to stand with the nations of ASEAN as they respond to erectile dysfunction treatment and support greater cooperation in building capacity to prepare for and respond to viagras and other public health challenges.

States it is U.S. Policy to advocate and actively advance Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the World Health Assembly, among other bodies. Requires report on the origins of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra to be submitted by the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of State, HHS Secretary, and others, not later than 180 days after enactment. Requires strategies that describe how the U.S. Will enhance cooperation with Canada, the European Union, NATO, and European partner countries in managing relations with China, including detailing diplomatic efforts to work with them to track and counter Chinese attempts to exert influence across the multilateral system, including at WHO.

Requires a strategy for countering and limiting Chinese influence in, and access to, the Middle East and North Africa, including efforts to encourage U.S. Private sector and public-private partnerships in healthcare technology, among other things. States it is U.S. Policy to work with Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to advance shared alliance goals of the Oceania region concerning health, among other things, and to improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Address the imposition of sanctions with respect to systematic rape, coercive abortion, forced sterilization, or involuntary contraceptive implantation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Addresses reporting related to debt relief via the International Development Association (IDA) for certain countries to respond to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Support for Global Financial Institution viagra Response Act of 2021To support efforts by international financial institutions to provide a robust global response to the erectile dysfunction treatment–19 viagra.1/27/2021S. 67Sen. Richard Durbin (D-IL)Read twice and referred to SFRCerectile dysfunction treatmentDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Support UNFPA Funding ActTo authorize contributions to the United Nations Population Fund, and for other purposes.6/16/2021H.R. 3938Rep.

Chrissy Houlahan (D-PA-6)Referred to HFACUNFPA, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH)Includes statement of U.S. Policy regarding financial support for UNFPA as a crucial part of U.S. Global health commitment. Authorizes appropriations for five years for an annual contribution to UNFPA to support core functions and programs.To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to require the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be responsible for viagra prevention and response, and for other purposes.2/8/2021S. 290Sen.

Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to HSGACviagraRequires the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be the permanent coordinator for viagra prevention and response for the federal government, outlines duties, and grants them authority to represent the U.S. In bilateral and multilateral discussions and agreements on relevant matters.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.2/18/2021H.R. 1145Rep. Young Kim (R-CA-39)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute by Voice Vote)WHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.3/17/2021S. 812Sen.

Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar Under General OrdersWHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To prohibit the use of funds to seek membership in the World Health Organization or to provide assessed or voluntary contributions to the World Health Organization.1/28/2021H.R. 497Rep. Jodey Arrington (R-TX-19)Referred to HFACWHOProhibits the use of federal funds to seek membership by the U.S. In WHO or to provide assessed or voluntary U.S. Contributions to WHO until such time as the President certifies that WHO meets certain conditions, including.

WHO has adopted meaningful reforms to ensure that humanitarian assistance is not politicized and is to be provided to those with the most need, WHO is not under the control or significant malign influence of the Chinese Communist party, WHO is not involved in a coverup of the Chinese Communist Party’s response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, WHO grants observer status to Taiwan, WHO does not divert humanitarian or medical supplies to Iran, North Korea, or Syria, and WHO has put in place mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability in its operations and eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse.United States Climate Leadership in International Mitigation, Adaptation, and Technology Enhancement Act of 2021(U.S. CLIMATE Act) To restore the United States international leadership on climate change and clean energy, and for other purposes. 4/19/2021S. 1201Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCClimate change, global healthRequires the Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant agencies, to conduct biennial comprehensive evaluations of present and ongoing disruptions to the global climate system, including the scarcity of global natural resources including fresh water, global food, health, and energy insecurities and conditions that contribute to gender-based violence, among other things.

Requires these evaluations to be used by the Secretary of State to inform the development and implementation of a climate security strategy, and to develop and implement plans to account for the impacts of climate change on global human health, fresh water, and marginalized groups. States U.S. Policy is to ensure that the International Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Security Program (required to be established under the act by the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of USAID) provide resources to developing countries to support efforts that reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience capacities of communities to the effects of climate change, including effects on water availability and health and diseases. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to use the influence of the U.S. To ensure that the Green Climate Fund requires country recipients to submit investment plan that describes how adaptation projects will advance public health outcomes, among other things.

Incorporates the Women and Climate Change Act.Uyghur Stop Oppressive Sterilizations Act(Uyghur SOS Act) To address state-sanctioned violence against women in the People’s Republic of China, including rape and torture in detention and forced sterilizations, forced abortions, and other coercive birth restriction policies, particularly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and for other purposes.5/18/2021H.R. 3306Rep. Vicky HartzlerReferred to HFAC and H. JudiciaryForced sterilization, abortionStates U.S. Policy is to regard the prevention of genocide and other atrocity crimes as a national interest particularly when those actions target certain groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region through, among other things, forced sterilizations, forced abortions and other coercive birth restrictions policies, and sexual violence and other torture in detention, to raise the issue of state-sanctioned violence against women, including rape, torture, and coercively enforced population control policies in China in all multilateral organizations where the U.S.

And China are members, including at the U.N. Security Council, and to consider state-sanctioned violence against women, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and the systematic use of rape and torture in mass internment camps in the Region as a gross violation of internationally-recognized human rights. Expresses the Sense of Congress that all governments, including the U.S., and international organizations, such as the U.N., should call the atrocities perpetuated by the government of China, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and other sexual violence, as genocide and crimes against humanity and that the U.S. Should strongly condemn the intimidation and threats targeting Uyghur and Kazakh women who provide public evidence of sexual violence and forced sterilizations and forced abortions in mass internment camps and the journalist who report these stories. Also expresses Sense of Congress that U.N.

Member states should condemn such atrocities by demanding that China end all forced sterilization, forced abortions, and other state-sanctioned violence against women, among other things. Requires the president to submit a strategy for ending atrocity crimes in the Region. Requires the Secretary of State to provide all appropriate assistance to women who belong to certain groups and who experienced sexual violence, torture, forced sterilizations and forced abortions in China in order for them to receive needed medical care and psychological support. Requires all existing authorities to be used to allow such women to at least temporarily enter the U.S.Women and Climate Change Act of 2021To address the disparate impact of climate change on women and support the efforts of women globally to address climate change, and for other purposes.1/11/2021H.R. 260Rep.

Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy &. CommerceClimate change, global health, reproductive healthAddresses climate change and its effects on women and girls. Establishes the Federal Interagency Working Group on Women and Climate Change within the Department of State and outlines its functions, such as identifying best practices for collecting data on the disparate impact of climate change on women – including in access to comprehensive health care, including reproductive health and rights. Requires the Department of State’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (GWI) to submit a strategy (and shortly thereafter an implementation plan and budget) to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change on women, including effective action to promote public health.

Requires the Ambassador-at-Large of GWI to designate a Senior Coordinator for Women and Climate Change. Requires the GWI Ambassador and the Senior Coordinator to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the human and financial resources necessary to carry out the Act.World Health Organization Accountability ActTo prohibit the availability of United States contributions to the World Health Organization until Congress receives a full report on China and the erectile dysfunction treatment–19 viagra, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 374Rep. Lauren Boebert (R-CO-3)Referred to HFACWHO, erectile dysfunction treatmentProhibits the use of federal funds for U.S. Contributions to WHO or U.S.

Participation in any of the activities of WHO until the Secretary of State and HHS Secretary jointly submit a report to Congress describing the manner and extent to which the handling of the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak prior to March 11, 2020, by WHO and China contributed to the emergency of the viagra.NOTES. SFRC means Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. HFAC means the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. H. Means House.

S. Means Senate. SFOPS means Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs. LGBTI means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. WHO is the World Health Organization.

ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. * Other than those that apply to U.S. NGOs receiving certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act..

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This highlights an can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens additional point. Even though childhood food insecurity is closely linked to poverty, food insecurity may be high even among families above poverty thresholds.Men and colleagues mention social disorganisation within the family as a potential explanation of why the relationship between household insecurity and mental health exists even after controlling for income. Other factors, such as high cost of can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens living in certain areas (ie, large cities), may make it difficult to get by even with a decent income. As such geography may be a relevant factor.

Parental unemployment and other abrupt changes such as divorce, or disability among family members, are additional can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens factors that could contribute to food insecurity. Importantly, these risk factors are much more likely to affect low-income families.8 Even among those entitled to benefits, there might be delays in receiving these, with consequences for a family’s food security. Typically, family poverty is often measured annually, but such aggregated measures might not capture the income volatility experienced by many low-income families.A key can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens limitation of the study is the cross-sectional nature of the data, which makes the interpretation open to reverse causation. For example, prior research has revealed a plethora of factors that predict food insecurity, such as mother’s health, substance abuse, family instability and immigrant background.5 Thus, the path from food insecurity to mental health might not be as straightforward as we might expect, as there could be other factors—often less easily measured—that account for part of the association.

However, the authors acknowledge this, and one study can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens can only do so much. Instead, future research should also apply (quasi)experimental approaches to get closer to causal estimates.Future research could also benefit from a comparative perspective. The rate of food insecurity varies considerably can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens across countries, but we know less about whether the consequences of food insecurity for children and youth also differ across countries. Previous research has shown that the relationship between parental income and children’s adult attainments and intergenerational mobility varies across countries, with less adverse consequences in more egalitarian and universal welfare states.9 For the current topic, the primary goal of welfare states should be to limit the prevalence of food insecurity among children.

However, it is important to know whether welfare states also cushion the negative repercussions among those children who still face insecure access to food while growing up.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Recent evidence of continuing inequalities by educational level in disability in Europe is disappointing. Further socioeconomic measures can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens might reveal greater inequalities. Conclusions are limited by differences in wording used to establish disability. Assuming that there is inequity behind these inequalities, this, along with the adverse effects of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, reinforces can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens the need for multisectoral action, collaboration and cooperation.Rubio Valverde et al1 show us that inequalities in disabilities in Europe have not improved between 2002 and 2017.

They included a wide age range (30–79 years) and 26 countries. They used two surveys, the European Union Statistics on can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens Income and Living (EU-SILC) and the European Social Survey. The disability measure was the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), a self-report of being limited in activities ‘people usually do’ in the past 6 months.2 The former survey indicated an increase in gap between low and high education groups, with the more educated experiencing reduced prevalence of disability, and the latter survey no discernible trend. Inequalities have been the subject of discussion for decades so it is disappointing to find this.Three aspects of the paper can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens caught my attention.

This is one of a long series of analyses by Mackenbach and his team which use cheap viagra education as the socioeconomic indicator. Their reasons for doing this are that they judge educational measures to be most comparable across countries, that it may be a starting point for several pathways and reverse causation is unlikely.3 However, it may not be the socioeconomic indicator can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens most strongly related to disability and may underestimate the importance of socioeconomic status. For example, in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, absolute differences in healthy life expectancy were greater for wealth categories than for education or social class whereas in the USA’s Health and Retirement Study both wealth and education were strong.4 Marmot’s example of a Glasgow male shows how education, occupation and material resource all play a part.5Marmot is also talking about ‘equity’ whereas Rubio Valverde’s paper refers to inequality. To know that there are these inequalities is the starting point but the prompt to action is inequity can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens.

Not a new topic, of course, but one that has become highly visible with the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. The WHO report judges that ‘failure to anticipate and avoid the resulting unwanted scenarios in the short and medium terms has led to a major risk both of exacerbating health, social and can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens economic inequities in the long term and of giving rise to new vulnerabilities within the population’6 (p 1). People with learning and other disabilities have been at higher risk of death. In England, as of November can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens 2020, 60% of erectile dysfunction treatment deaths were to people with disabilities.7 erectile dysfunction treatment is leaving some people with reduced long-term health which may lead to reduced earning capacity or mobility6 (p 33).

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Methods are being developed to harmonise when measures are different9 but Rubio Valverde’s paper highlights how differences in measurement can hamper can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens conclusions about risks. Being self-report, and depending on what people consider to be usual, one can expect some variation by culture and age and gender. However, it is likely that some of it can i buy viagra over the counter at walgreens arises from the context in which people live. Their country’s health services, policy and environment.

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Food insecurity—the economic and social condition of get viagra online limited or uncertain access to adequate food—is high on the agenda.1 In Europe, estimates from Eurostat in 2020 show that 7% of households with children are food insecure.2 There is a worry that the corresponding figures for 2021 may be even higher as the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra has led to increased unemployment and economic uncertainty, processes that likely exacerbate food insecurity.3 4 The fact that so many children experience insecure access to food is important in its own right, but food insecurity is also associated with long-term adverse outcomes related to, for example, education and nutrition.5 6In a timely new study, Men et al7 examine the association between food insecurity and mental health problems among children and young adults. Using large-scale Canadian survey data on more than 55 000 individuals, they document that food insecurity is associated with worse mental health, and that the association is graded with more severe food insecurity associated with progressively worse health. The study includes overall measures of mental health, but also more specific measures related to depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation.Beyond the immediate relevance of the topic, Men et al7 address dimensions of disadvantage that go beyond standard measures get viagra online of socioeconomic status such as income and poverty, and it is also interesting to see such patterns in a country with universal healthcare and a safety net meant to buffer some of the disadvantages of poor income.

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Previous research has shown that the relationship between parental income and children’s adult attainments and intergenerational mobility varies across countries, with less adverse consequences in more egalitarian and universal welfare states.9 For the current topic, the primary goal of welfare states should be to limit the prevalence of food insecurity among children. However, it is important to know whether welfare states also cushion the negative repercussions among those children who still face insecure access to food while growing up.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Recent evidence of continuing inequalities by educational level in disability in Europe is disappointing. Further socioeconomic measures might get viagra online reveal greater inequalities.

Conclusions are limited by differences in wording used to establish disability. Assuming that get viagra online there is inequity behind these inequalities, this, along with the adverse effects of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, reinforces the need for multisectoral action, collaboration and cooperation.Rubio Valverde et al1 show us that inequalities in disabilities in Europe have not improved between 2002 and 2017. They included a wide age range (30–79 years) and 26 countries.

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To know that there are these inequalities is the starting get viagra online point but the prompt to action is inequity. Not a new topic, of course, but one that has become highly visible with the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. The WHO report judges that ‘failure to anticipate and avoid the resulting unwanted scenarios in the short and medium terms has led to a major risk both of exacerbating health, social and economic inequities in the long term and of giving rise to new get viagra online vulnerabilities within the population’6 (p 1).

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NCHS Data buy viagra without a prescription Brief No. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (1) and diabetes (2) buy viagra without a prescription. Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition. Menopause is “the permanent cessation of menstruation buy viagra without a prescription that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity” (3).

This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, buy viagra without a prescription 3.7% are perimenopausal, and 22.1% are postmenopausal. Keywords. Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept buy viagra without a prescription less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) (Figure 1).

Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period. Figure 1 buy viagra without a prescription. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, buy viagra without a prescription 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last buy viagra without a prescription menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE buy viagra without a prescription.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage buy viagra without a prescription of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 2 buy viagra without a prescription.

Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p buy viagra without a prescription <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual buy viagra without a prescription cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for buy viagra without a prescription Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one buy viagra without a prescription in four nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women.

Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 3 buy viagra without a prescription. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal buy viagra without a prescription status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle buy viagra without a prescription and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 3pdf buy viagra without a prescription icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage of women buy viagra without a prescription in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week. Figure 4 buy viagra without a prescription. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status.

United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle.

Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories. Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5). Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion.

DefinitionsMenopausal status. A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?. €. 2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?.

€. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?. €. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries.

Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?. €Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?.

€Trouble falling asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?. € Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis.

NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone. Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS. For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States.

The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report. ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454. 2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB.

Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50. 2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141.

Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF. Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon.

2016.Santoro N. Perimenopause. From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9. 2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al.

Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult. A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International. SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software]. 2012.

Suggested citationVahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics.

2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J. Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J.

Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.

NCHS Data get viagra online http://omalandro.com/?page_id=33 Brief No. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular get viagra online disease (1) and diabetes (2). Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition.

Menopause is “the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after get viagra online the loss of ovarian activity” (3). This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, 3.7% are perimenopausal, and get viagra online 22.1% are postmenopausal.

Keywords. Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) (Figure 1) get viagra online. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.

Figure 1 get viagra online. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, get viagra online 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal get viagra online if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data get viagra online table for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times get viagra online or more in the past week (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 2 get viagra online. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, get viagra online 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal get viagra online if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data get viagra online table for Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who get viagra online had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 3 get viagra online. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, get viagra online 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and get viagra online their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data get viagra online table for Figure 3pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal get viagra online women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.

Figure 4 get viagra online. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories. Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5).

Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion. DefinitionsMenopausal status. A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?.

€. 2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?. €. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?.

€. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?. €Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?.

€Trouble falling asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?.

€ Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis. NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone. Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS.

For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States. The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS.

Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report.

ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454. 2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB.

Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50. 2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No.

141. Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF.

Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon. 2016.Santoro N. Perimenopause.

From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9. 2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult.

A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International. SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software].

2012. Suggested citationVahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286.

Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics. 2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J.

Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J. Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.

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More than http://h2owireless.de/ueber-uns/ 90% of babies born cheap viagra pills with heart defects survive into adulthood. As a result, there are now more adults living with congenital heart disease than children. These adults have a chronic, lifelong condition and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has produced advice to give the best chance cheap viagra pills of a normal life. The guidelines are published online today in European Heart Journal,1 and on the ESC website.2Congenital heart disease refers to any structural defect of the heart and/or great vessels (those directly connected to the heart) present at birth.

Congenital heart disease affects all aspects of life, including physical and mental health, socialising, and work cheap viagra pills. Most patients are unable to exercise at the same level as their peers which, along with the awareness of having a chronic condition, affects mental wellbeing."Having a congenital heart disease, with a need for long-term follow-up and treatment, can also have an impact on social life, limit employment options and make it difficult to get insurance," said Professor Helmut Baumgartner, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and head of Adult Congenital and Valvular Heart Disease at the University Hospital of Münster, Germany. "Guiding and supporting cheap viagra pills patients in all of these processes is an inherent part of their care."All adults with congenital heart disease should have at least one appointment at a specialist centre to determine how often they need to be seen. Teams at these centres should include specialist nurses, psychologists and social workers given that anxiety and depression are common concerns.Pregnancy is contraindicated in women with certain conditions such high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs.

"Pre-conception counselling is recommended for women and men to discuss the risk of cheap viagra pills the defect in offspring and the option of foetal screening," said Professor Julie De Backer, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and cardiologist and clinical geneticist at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.Concerning sports, recommendations are provided for each condition. Professor De Backer said. "All adults with congenital heart disease should be encouraged to exercise, taking into account the nature of the underlying defect and cheap viagra pills their own abilities."The guidelines state when and how to diagnose complications. This includes proactively monitoring for arrhythmias, cardiac imaging and blood tests to detect problems with heart function.Detailed recommendations are provided on how and when to treat complications.

Arrhythmias are an important cause of sickness and death and the cheap viagra pills guidelines stress the importance of correct and timely referral to a specialised treatment centre. They also list when particular treatments should be considered such as ablation (a procedure to destroy heart tissue and stop faulty electrical signals) and device implantation.For several defects, there are new recommendations for catheter-based treatment. "Catheter-based treatment should be performed by specialists in adult congenital heart disease cheap viagra pills working within a multidisciplinary team," said Professor Baumgartner. Story Source.

Materials provided cheap viagra pills by European Society of Cardiology. Note. Content may be edited for style cheap viagra pills and length.One in five patients die within a year after the most common type of heart attack. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) treatment guidelines for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome are published online today in European Heart Journal, and on the ESC website.Chest pain is the most common symptom, along with pain radiating to one or both arms, the neck, or jaw.

Anyone experiencing these cheap viagra pills symptoms should call an ambulance immediately. Complications include potentially deadly heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias), which are another reason to seek urgent medical help.Treatment is aimed at the underlying cause. The main cheap viagra pills reason is fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) that become surrounded by a blood clot, narrowing the arteries supplying blood to the heart. In these cases, patients should receive blood thinners and stents to restore blood flow.

For the first time, the guidelines recommend imaging to identify other causes such as a tear cheap viagra pills in a blood vessel leading to the heart.Regarding diagnosis, there is no distinguishing change on the electrocardiogram (ECG), which may be normal. The key step is measuring a chemical in the blood called troponin. When blood flow to the heart is decreased or blocked, heart cells die, and troponin levels cheap viagra pills rise. If levels are normal, the measurement should be repeated one hour later to rule out the diagnosis.

If elevated, hospital admission is recommended to further evaluate the severity of cheap viagra pills the disease and decide the treatment strategy.Given that the main cause is related to atherosclerosis, there is a high risk of recurrence, which can also be deadly. Patients should be prescribed blood thinners and lipid lowering therapies. "Equally important is a healthy lifestyle including smoking cessation, exercise, and a diet emphasising vegetables, fruits and whole grains while limiting saturated cheap viagra pills fat and alcohol," said Professor Jean-Philippe Collet, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and professor of cardiology, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.Behavioural change and adherence to medication are best achieved when patients are supported by a multidisciplinary team including cardiologists, general practitioners, nurses, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychologists, and pharmacists.The likelihood of triggering another heart attack during sexual activity is low for most patients, and regular exercise decreases this risk. Healthcare providers should ask patients about sexual activity and offer advice and counselling.Annual influenza vaccination is recommended -- especially for patients aged 65 and over -- to prevent further heart attacks and increase longevity."Women should receive equal access to care, a prompt diagnosis, and treatments at the same rate and intensity as men," said Professor Holger Thiele, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and medical director, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Heart Centre Leipzig, Germany.

Story Source cheap viagra pills. Materials provided by European Society of Cardiology. Note. Content may be edited for style and length.Feeling angry these days?.

New research suggests that a good night of sleep may be just what you need.This program of research comprised an analysis of diaries and lab experiments. The researchers analyzed daily diary entries from 202 college students, who tracked their sleep, daily stressors, and anger over one month. Preliminary results show that individuals reported experiencing more anger on days following less sleep than usual for them.The research team also conducted a lab experiment involving 147 community residents. Participants were randomly assigned either to maintain their regular sleep schedule or to restrict their sleep at home by about five hours across two nights.

Following this manipulation, anger was assessed during exposure to irritating noise.The experiment found that well-slept individuals adapted to noise and reported less anger after two days. In contrast, sleep-restricted individuals exhibited higher and increased anger in response to aversive noise, suggesting that losing sleep undermined emotional adaptation to frustrating circumstance. Subjective sleepiness accounted for most of the experimental effect of sleep loss on anger. A related experiment in which individuals reported anger following an online competitive game found similar results."The results are important because they provide strong causal evidence that sleep restriction increases anger and increases frustration over time," said Zlatan Krizan, who has a doctorate in personality and social psychology and is a professor of psychology at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa.

"Moreover, the results from the daily diary study suggest such effects translate to everyday life, as young adults reported more anger in the afternoon on days they slept less."The authors noted that the findings highlight the importance of considering specific emotional reactions such as anger and their regulation in the context of sleep disruption. Story Source. Materials provided by American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Note http://harap-lak.de/reservierung/.

Content may be edited for style and length.Overcoming the nation's opioid epidemic will require clinicians to look beyond opioids, new research from Oregon Health &. Science University suggests.The study reveals that among patients who participated in an in-hospital addiction medicine intervention at OHSU, three-quarters came into the hospital using more than one substance. Overall, participants used fewer substances in the months after working with the hospital-based addictions team than before.The study published in the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment."We found that polysubstance use is the norm," said lead author Caroline King, M.P.H., a health systems researcher and current M.D./Ph.D. Student in the OHSU School of Medicine's biomedical engineering program.

"This is important because we may need to offer additional support to patients using multiple drugs. If someone with opioid use disorder also uses alcohol or methamphetamines, we miss caring for the whole person by focusing only on their opioid use."About 40% of participants reported they had abstained from using at least one substance at least a month after discharge -- a measure of success that isn't typically tracked in health system record-keeping.Researchers enrolled 486 people seen by an addiction medicine consult service while hospitalized at OHSU Hospital between 2015 and 2018, surveying them early during their stay in the hospital and then again 30 to 90 days after discharge. advertisement Treatment of opioid use disorder can involve medication such as buprenorphine, or Suboxone, which normalizes brain function by acting on the same target in the brain as prescription opioids or heroin.However, focusing only on the opioid addiction may not adequately address the complexity of each patient."Methamphetamine use in many parts of the U.S., including Oregon, is prominent right now," said senior author Honora Englander, M.D., associate professor of medicine (hospital medicine) in the OHSU School of Medicine. "If people are using stimulants and opioids -- and we only talk about their opioid use -- there are independent harms from stimulant use combined with opioids.

People may be using methamphetamines for different reasons than they use opioids."Englander leads the in-hospital addiction service, known as Project IMPACT, or Improving Addiction Care Team.The initiative brings together physicians, social workers, peer-recovery mentors and community addiction providers to address addiction when patients are admitted to the hospital. Since its inception in 2015, the program has served more than 1,950 people hospitalized at OHSU.The national opioid epidemic spiraled out of control following widespread prescribing of powerful pain medications beginning in the 1990s. Since then, it has often been viewed as a public health crisis afflicting rural, suburban and affluent communities that are largely white.Englander said the new study suggests that a singular focus on opioids may cause clinicians to overlook complexity of issues facing many populations, including people of color, who may also use other substances."Centering on opioids centers on whiteness," Englander said. "Understanding the complexity of people's substance use patterns is really important to honoring their experience and developing systems that support their needs."Researchers say the finding further reinforces earlier research showing that hospitalization is an important time to offer treatment to people with substance use disorder, even if they are not seeking treatment for addiction when they come to the hospital.

Story Source. Materials provided by Oregon Health &. Science University. Original written by Erik Robinson.

Note. Content may be edited for style and length.Researchers from the University of Minnesota, with support from Medtronic, have developed a groundbreaking process for multi-material 3D printing of lifelike models of the heart's aortic valve and the surrounding structures that mimic the exact look and feel of a real patient.These patient-specific organ models, which include 3D-printed soft sensor arrays integrated into the structure, are fabricated using specialized inks and a customized 3D printing process. Such models can be used in preparation for minimally invasive procedures to improve outcomes in thousands of patients worldwide.The research is published in Science Advances, a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).The researchers 3D printed what is called the aortic root, the section of the aorta closest to and attached to the heart. The aortic root consists of the aortic valve and the openings for the coronary arteries.

The aortic valve has three flaps, called leaflets, surrounded by a fibrous ring. The model also included part of the left ventricle muscle and the ascending aorta."Our goal with these 3D-printed models is to reduce medical risks and complications by providing patient-specific tools to help doctors understand the exact anatomical structure and mechanical properties of the specific patient's heart," said Michael McAlpine, a University of Minnesota mechanical engineering professor and senior researcher on the study. "Physicians can test and try the valve implants before the actual procedure. The models can also help patients better understand their own anatomy and the procedure itself."This organ model was specifically designed to help doctors prepare for a procedure called a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) in which a new valve is placed inside the patient's native aortic valve.

The procedure is used to treat a condition called aortic stenosis that occurs when the heart's aortic valve narrows and prevents the valve from opening fully, which reduces or blocks blood flow from the heart into the main artery. Aortic stenosis is one of the most common cardiovascular conditions in the elderly and affects about 2.7 million adults over the age of 75 in North America. The TAVR procedure is less invasive than open heart surgery to repair the damaged valve. advertisement The aortic root models are made by using CT scans of the patient to match the exact shape.

They are then 3D printed using specialized silicone-based inks that mechanically match the feel of real heart tissue the researchers obtained from the University of Minnesota's Visible Heart Laboratories. Commercial printers currently on the market can 3D print the shape, but use inks that are often too rigid to match the softness of real heart tissue.On the flip side, the specialized 3D printers at the University of Minnesota were able to mimic both the soft tissue components of the model, as well as the hard calcification on the valve flaps by printing an ink similar to spackling paste used in construction to repair drywall and plaster.Physicians can use the models to determine the size and placement of the valve device during the procedure. Integrated sensors that are 3D printed within the model give physicians the electronic pressure feedback that can be used to guide and optimize the selection and positioning of the valve within the patient's anatomy.But McAlpine doesn't see this as the end of the road for these 3D-printed models."As our 3D-printing techniques continue to improve and we discover new ways to integrate electronics to mimic organ function, the models themselves may be used as artificial replacement organs," said McAlpine, who holds the Kuhrmeyer Family Chair Professorship in the University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering. "Someday maybe these 'bionic' organs can be as good as or better than their biological counterparts."In addition to McAlpine, the team included University of Minnesota researchers Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, co-first author and a recent mechanical engineering Ph.D.

Graduate who now works at Seagate. Kaiyan Qiu, another co-first author and a former mechanical engineering postdoctoral researcher who is now an assistant professor at Washington State University. Jorge D. Zhingre Sanchez, a former biomedical engineering Ph.D.

Student who worked in the University of Minnesota's Visible Heart Laboratories who is now a senior R&D engineer at Medtronic. Zachary J. Fuenning, a mechanical engineering graduate student. Paul A.

Iaizzo, a professor of surgery in the Medical School and founding director of the U of M Visible Heart Laboratories. Priya Nair, senior scientist at Medtronic. And Sarah E. Ahlberg, director of research &.

Technology at Medtronic.This research was funded by Medtronic, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health, and the Minnesota Discovery, Research, and InnoVation Economy (MnDRIVE) Initiative through the State of Minnesota. Additional support was provided by University of Minnesota Interdisciplinary Doctoral Fellowship and Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship awarded to Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani..

More than get viagra online https://www.juliettefoundation.org/?p=631 90% of babies born with heart defects survive into adulthood. As a result, there are now more adults living with congenital heart disease than children. These adults have a chronic, get viagra online lifelong condition and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has produced advice to give the best chance of a normal life.

The guidelines are published online today in European Heart Journal,1 and on the ESC website.2Congenital heart disease refers to any structural defect of the heart and/or great vessels (those directly connected to the heart) present at birth. Congenital heart disease get viagra online affects all aspects of life, including physical and mental health, socialising, and work. Most patients are unable to exercise at the same level as their peers which, along with the awareness of having a chronic condition, affects mental wellbeing."Having a congenital heart disease, with a need for long-term follow-up and treatment, can also have an impact on social life, limit employment options and make it difficult to get insurance," said Professor Helmut Baumgartner, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and head of Adult Congenital and Valvular Heart Disease at the University Hospital of Münster, Germany.

"Guiding and supporting patients in all of these processes is an inherent part of their care."All adults with congenital heart disease get viagra online should have at least one appointment at a specialist centre to determine how often they need to be seen. Teams at these centres should include specialist nurses, psychologists and social workers given that anxiety and depression are common concerns.Pregnancy is contraindicated in women with certain conditions such high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. "Pre-conception counselling is recommended for women and men to discuss the risk of the defect in offspring and the option of foetal screening," said Professor Julie De Backer, get viagra online Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and cardiologist and clinical geneticist at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.Concerning sports, recommendations are provided for each condition.

Professor De Backer said. "All adults with congenital heart disease should be encouraged get viagra online to exercise, taking into account the nature of the underlying defect and their own abilities."The guidelines state when and how to diagnose complications. This includes proactively monitoring for arrhythmias, cardiac imaging and blood tests to detect problems with heart function.Detailed recommendations are provided on how and when to treat complications.

Arrhythmias are an important cause of sickness and death and the guidelines stress the importance of correct and timely referral to a specialised treatment centre get viagra online. They also list when particular treatments should be considered such as ablation (a procedure to destroy heart tissue and stop faulty electrical signals) and device implantation.For several defects, there are new recommendations for catheter-based treatment. "Catheter-based treatment should be performed get viagra online by specialists in adult congenital heart disease working within a multidisciplinary team," said Professor Baumgartner.

Story Source. Materials provided by European Society of Cardiology get viagra online. Note.

Content may be edited for style and length.One in five patients die within a year after the most common type of heart attack get viagra online. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) treatment guidelines for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome are published online today in European Heart Journal, and on the ESC website.Chest pain is the most common symptom, along with pain radiating to one or both arms, the neck, or jaw. Anyone experiencing get viagra online these symptoms should call an ambulance immediately.

Complications include potentially deadly heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias), which are another reason to seek urgent medical help.Treatment is aimed at the underlying cause. The main reason get viagra online is fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) that become surrounded by a blood clot, narrowing the arteries supplying blood to the heart. In these cases, patients should receive blood thinners and stents to restore blood flow.

For the first time, the guidelines get viagra online recommend imaging to identify other causes such as a tear in a blood vessel leading to the heart.Regarding diagnosis, there is no distinguishing change on the electrocardiogram (ECG), which may be normal. The key step is measuring a chemical in the blood called troponin. When blood flow get viagra online to the heart is decreased or blocked, heart cells die, and troponin levels rise.

If levels are normal, the measurement should be repeated one hour later to rule out the diagnosis. If elevated, hospital admission is recommended to further evaluate the severity of the disease and decide the treatment strategy.Given that the main cause is related to atherosclerosis, there is a high risk of recurrence, which can also get viagra online be deadly. Patients should be prescribed blood thinners and lipid lowering therapies.

"Equally important is a healthy lifestyle including smoking cessation, exercise, and a diet emphasising vegetables, fruits and whole grains while limiting saturated fat and alcohol," said Professor Jean-Philippe Collet, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and professor of cardiology, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.Behavioural change and adherence to medication are best achieved when patients are supported by a multidisciplinary team including cardiologists, get viagra online general practitioners, nurses, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychologists, and pharmacists.The likelihood of triggering another heart attack during sexual activity is low for most patients, and regular exercise decreases this risk. Healthcare providers should ask patients about sexual activity and offer advice and counselling.Annual influenza vaccination is recommended -- especially for patients aged 65 and over -- to prevent further heart attacks and increase longevity."Women should receive equal access to care, a prompt diagnosis, and treatments at the same rate and intensity as men," said Professor Holger Thiele, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and medical director, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Heart Centre Leipzig, Germany. Story Source get viagra online.

Materials provided by European Society of Cardiology. Note. Content may be edited for style and length.Feeling angry these days?.

New research suggests that a good night of sleep may be just what you need.This program of research comprised an analysis of diaries and lab experiments. The researchers analyzed daily diary entries from 202 college students, who tracked their sleep, daily stressors, and anger over one month. Preliminary results show that individuals reported experiencing more anger on days following less sleep than usual for them.The research team also conducted a lab experiment involving 147 community residents.

Participants were randomly assigned either to maintain their regular sleep schedule or to restrict their sleep at home by about five hours across two nights. Following this manipulation, anger was assessed during exposure to irritating noise.The experiment found that well-slept individuals adapted to noise and reported less anger after two days. In contrast, sleep-restricted individuals exhibited higher and increased anger in response to aversive noise, suggesting that losing sleep undermined emotional adaptation to frustrating circumstance.

Subjective sleepiness accounted for most of the experimental effect of sleep loss on anger. A related experiment in which individuals reported anger following an online competitive game found similar results."The results are important because they provide strong causal evidence that sleep restriction increases anger and increases frustration over time," said Zlatan Krizan, who has a doctorate in personality and social psychology and is a professor of psychology at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. "Moreover, the results from the daily diary study suggest such effects translate to everyday life, as young adults reported more anger in the afternoon on days they slept less."The authors noted that the findings highlight the importance of considering specific emotional reactions such as anger and their regulation in the context of sleep disruption.

Story Source. Materials provided by American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Note viagra for men online.

Content may be edited for style and length.Overcoming the nation's opioid epidemic will require clinicians to look beyond opioids, new research from Oregon Health &. Science University suggests.The study reveals that among patients who participated in an in-hospital addiction medicine intervention at OHSU, three-quarters came into the hospital using more than one substance. Overall, participants used fewer substances in the months after working with the hospital-based addictions team than before.The study published in the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment."We found that polysubstance use is the norm," said lead author Caroline King, M.P.H., a health systems researcher and current M.D./Ph.D.

Student in the OHSU School of Medicine's biomedical engineering program. "This is important because we may need to offer additional support to patients using multiple drugs. If someone with opioid use disorder also uses alcohol or methamphetamines, we miss caring for the whole person by focusing only on their opioid use."About 40% of participants reported they had abstained from using at least one substance at least a month after discharge -- a measure of success that isn't typically tracked in health system record-keeping.Researchers enrolled 486 people seen by an addiction medicine consult service while hospitalized at OHSU Hospital between 2015 and 2018, surveying them early during their stay in the hospital and then again 30 to 90 days after discharge.

advertisement Treatment of opioid use disorder can involve medication such as buprenorphine, or Suboxone, which normalizes brain function by acting on the same target in the brain as prescription opioids or heroin.However, focusing only on the opioid addiction may not adequately address the complexity of each patient."Methamphetamine use in many parts of the U.S., including Oregon, is prominent right now," said senior author Honora Englander, M.D., associate professor of medicine (hospital medicine) in the OHSU School of Medicine. "If people are using stimulants and opioids -- and we only talk about their opioid use -- there are independent harms from stimulant use combined with opioids. People may be using methamphetamines for different reasons than they use opioids."Englander leads the in-hospital addiction service, known as Project IMPACT, or Improving Addiction Care Team.The initiative brings together physicians, social workers, peer-recovery mentors and community addiction providers to address addiction when patients are admitted to the hospital.

Since its inception in 2015, the program has served more than 1,950 people hospitalized at OHSU.The national opioid epidemic spiraled out of control following widespread prescribing of powerful pain medications beginning in the 1990s. Since then, it has often been viewed as a public health crisis afflicting rural, suburban and affluent communities that are largely white.Englander said the new study suggests that a singular focus on opioids may cause clinicians to overlook complexity of issues facing many populations, including people of color, who may also use other substances."Centering on opioids centers on whiteness," Englander said. "Understanding the complexity of people's substance use patterns is really important to honoring their experience and developing systems that support their needs."Researchers say the finding further reinforces earlier research showing that hospitalization is an important time to offer treatment to people with substance use disorder, even if they are not seeking treatment for addiction when they come to the hospital.

Story Source. Materials provided by Oregon Health &. Science University.

Original written by Erik Robinson. Note. Content may be edited for style and length.Researchers from the University of Minnesota, with support from Medtronic, have developed a groundbreaking process for multi-material 3D printing of lifelike models of the heart's aortic valve and the surrounding structures that mimic the exact look and feel of a real patient.These patient-specific organ models, which include 3D-printed soft sensor arrays integrated into the structure, are fabricated using specialized inks and a customized 3D printing process.

Such models can be used in preparation for minimally invasive procedures to improve outcomes in thousands of patients worldwide.The research is published in Science Advances, a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).The researchers 3D printed what is called the aortic root, the section of the aorta closest to and attached to the heart. The aortic root consists of the aortic valve and the openings for the coronary arteries. The aortic valve has three flaps, called leaflets, surrounded by a fibrous ring.

The model also included part of the left ventricle muscle and the ascending aorta."Our goal with these 3D-printed models is to reduce medical risks and complications by providing patient-specific tools to help doctors understand the exact anatomical structure and mechanical properties of the specific patient's heart," said Michael McAlpine, a University of Minnesota mechanical engineering professor and senior researcher on the study. "Physicians can test and try the valve implants before the actual procedure. The models can also help patients better understand their own anatomy and the procedure itself."This organ model was specifically designed to help doctors prepare for a procedure called a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) in which a new valve is placed inside the patient's native aortic valve.

The procedure is used to treat a condition called aortic stenosis that occurs when the heart's aortic valve narrows and prevents the valve from opening fully, which reduces or blocks blood flow from the heart into the main artery. Aortic stenosis is one of the most common cardiovascular conditions in the elderly and affects about 2.7 million adults over the age of 75 in North America. The TAVR procedure is less invasive than open heart surgery to repair the damaged valve.

advertisement The aortic root models are made by using CT scans of the patient to match the exact shape. They are then 3D printed using specialized silicone-based inks that mechanically match the feel of real heart tissue the researchers obtained from the University of Minnesota's Visible Heart Laboratories. Commercial printers currently on the market can 3D print the shape, but use inks that are often too rigid to match the softness of real heart tissue.On the flip side, the specialized 3D printers at the University of Minnesota were able to mimic both the soft tissue components of the model, as well as the hard calcification on the valve flaps by printing an ink similar to spackling paste used in construction to repair drywall and plaster.Physicians can use the models to determine the size and placement of the valve device during the procedure.

Integrated sensors that are 3D printed within the model give physicians the electronic pressure feedback that can be used to guide and optimize the selection and positioning of the valve within the patient's anatomy.But McAlpine doesn't see this as the end of the road for these 3D-printed models."As our 3D-printing techniques continue to improve and we discover new ways to integrate electronics to mimic organ function, the models themselves may be used as artificial replacement organs," said McAlpine, who holds the Kuhrmeyer Family Chair Professorship in the University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering. "Someday maybe these 'bionic' organs can be as good as or better than their biological counterparts."In addition to McAlpine, the team included University of Minnesota researchers Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, co-first author and a recent mechanical engineering Ph.D. Graduate who now works at Seagate.

Kaiyan Qiu, another co-first author and a former mechanical engineering postdoctoral researcher who is now an assistant professor at Washington State University. Jorge D. Zhingre Sanchez, a former biomedical engineering Ph.D.

Student who worked in the University of Minnesota's Visible Heart Laboratories who is now a senior R&D engineer at Medtronic. Zachary J. Fuenning, a mechanical engineering graduate student.

Paul A. Iaizzo, a professor of surgery in the Medical School and founding director of the U of M Visible Heart Laboratories. Priya Nair, senior scientist at Medtronic.

And Sarah E. Ahlberg, director of research &. Technology at Medtronic.This research was funded by Medtronic, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health, and the Minnesota Discovery, Research, and InnoVation Economy (MnDRIVE) Initiative through the State of Minnesota.

Additional support was provided by University of Minnesota Interdisciplinary Doctoral Fellowship and Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship awarded to Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani..

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Policy regarding safe abortion and working to end unsafe abortion. Repeals the Helms Amendment (which prohibits the use of foreign assistance to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to women viagra pills motivate or coerce any person to practice abortion). States that notwithstanding any other provision of law, certain funds may be used to provide comprehensive reproductive health care services, including abortion services, training, and equipment.Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act of 2021To establish an interagency One Health Program, and for other purposes.3/18/2021S. 861Sen.

Tina Smith (D-MN)Read twice women viagra pills and referred to S. HELPOne Health, global health securityRequires the heads of HHS, USDA, USAID, DoD, and certain other agencies to develop, publish, and submit to Congress a national One Health Framework for coordinated federal activities under the One Health Program not later than one year after enactment. Among other things, states the framework must describe existing women viagra pills efforts and contain recommendations for building upon and complementing the activities of the CDC, the FDA, USAID, NIH, and certain others and also establish specific federal goals and priorities and describe specific activities required to achieve these. Requires the submission of an addendum to the framework not later than three years after its original submission, describing progress in advancing these activities.

Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as necessary to develop the framework above. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress not later than two years after the addendum is submitted, detailing existing collaborative efforts among certain agencies for this purpose and containing an evaluation of the framework and its specified activities.American Medical Investment Generating Overseas Security Act(AMIGOS Act)To prohibit the President from taking any action to support the waiver of obligations of members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment–19 unless women viagra pills a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment–19, and for other purposes.5/14/2021H.R. 3236Maria Elvira Salazar (R-FL-27)Referred to HFAC and H. Ways and MeansTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, erectile dysfunction treatmentsStates the women viagra pills President may not take any action to support waiver of obligations of WRO members under the TRIPS agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to such.

Requires the President to allocate excess U.S. erectile dysfunction treatments in a specified order of priority, with certain exceptions, and to monitor the allocation of such to ensure assisted governments provide treatments to their peoples in a timely manner and do not otherwise withhold them. Requires such treatments provided to foreign countries to be marked as assistance from the American people or the U.S women viagra pills. Government and to include a depiction of the flag of the U.S.

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1319Rep. John Yarmuth (D-KY-3)Became law (P.L. 117-2)erectile dysfunction treatment, Global FundSee KFF summary.American Values ActTo permanently enact certain appropriations Act restrictions on the use of funds for abortions and involuntary sterilizations, and for other purposes.2/4/2021S. 239Sen.

James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, involuntary sterilization amendment, Siljander amendment, Kemp-Kasten amendment, Peace Corps provision, Helms amendment, Biden amendmentAmends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to codify in permanent law the Siljander amendment, which prohibits the use of funds to lobby for or against abortion, and the Kemp-Kasten amendment, which prohibits funding any organization or program, as determined by the President, that supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization. Restates the Helms amendment, the Involuntary Sterilization amendment (which prohibits the use of funds to pay for involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide a financial incentive to anyone to undergo sterilization), and the Biden amendment (which states that funds may not be used for biomedical research related to methods of or the performance of abortion or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning) that are already in permanent law. Also amends the Peace Corps Act to codify in permanent law the Peace Corps provision, which prohibits Peace Corps funding from paying for an abortion for a Peace Corps volunteer or trainee, except in cases where the life of the woman is endangered by pregnancy or in cases of rape or incest. In the past these have been included only in annual State-Foreign Operations appropriations language.

See also the KFF fact sheet on FP/RH statutory requirements and policies and the KFF explainer on UNFPA funding and Kemp-Kasten.Binational Health Strategies Act of 2021To amend the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission Act, with respect to preparedness for erectile dysfunction treatment–19 and other infectious diseases in the border region, and for other purposes.3/03/2021H.R. 1538Rep.. Veronica Escobar (D-TX-16)Referred to H. Energy and HFACMexicoAuthorizes and directs the President to seek to begin negotiations with Mexico to amend an existing agreement addressing infectious disease preparedness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area, with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment and other infectious diseases, specifically requiring the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to submit a report on the border area’s response to erectile dysfunction treatment and requiring it to also develop and publicly publish a binational strategic plan that addresses how the area should strengthen its erectile dysfunction treatment response, sharing relevant health data, and how a erectile dysfunction treatment should be disbursed throughout the area, among other things.

Requires the Commission to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of the strategic plan and then to submit a report on actions taken each year. Requires the Commission to develop and publish a plan to prepare and respond to infectious diseases (other than erectile dysfunction treatment) within the border area, to update the plan at least once every three years for as long as necessary, and to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of this plan, with a report on actions taken each year required to be submitted.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/17/2021H.R.

3271Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA-8)Referred to H. Energy and CommerceClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations.

Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan.

Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/19/2021S. 1702Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to S.

HELPClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations. Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change.

Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021H.R.

556Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S.

Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021S. 142Sen.

Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S.

Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health Security Act of 2021To authorize a comprehensive, strategic approach for United States foreign assistance to developing countries to strengthen global health security, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 391Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA-11)Passed HouseGlobal health security, global health emergenciesStates it is U.S.

Policy to promote and invest in global health security and viagra preparedness as a core national security interest. Establishes a Global Health Security Agenda Interagency Review Council, designates members, responsibilities, and frequency of meetings. Designates a U.S. Coordinator for Global Health Security responsible for coordination of the interagency process for responding to global health security emergencies.

Express Sense of Congress that the President should consider appointing an individual with significant background and expertise in public health or emergency response management to such position. Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy, its implementation (including agency-specific plans), and an annual report on status of implementation. Directs the Secretary of State, Treasury Secretary, USAID Administrator, and HHS Secretary, among others, to seek to enter into negotiations with donors, relevant U.N.

Agencies (including WHO), and other stakeholders to establish a fund for global health security and viagra preparedness as a multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism. Describes Fund’s Advisory Board, purpose, Executive Board and its makeup and duties. Creates a Coordinator of U.S. Government activities to advance global health security, who shall be appointed by the President to represent the U.S.

On the Executive Board. Outlines eligible partner country definition and Fund program objectives, supported activities, administration, including appointment of an Administrator appointed by the Executive Board, and transparency and accountability requirements. Requires reports to Congress on the Fund including a 6 month status report and then annual reports after the Fund’s establishment. And authorizes U.S.

Contributions to the Fund with a limit that the U.S. Share not exceed 33% of total contributions to the Fund cumulatively.Global viagra Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021H.R. 3424Rep.

Grace Meng (D-NY-6)Referred to HFACviagra, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security, biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with viagra potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Global viagra Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021S.1737Sen. Chris Coons (D-DE)Read twice and referred to SFRCviagra, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security,biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with viagra potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level.

Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/9/2021S. 1996Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S.

Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S. Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community.

And expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/8/2021H.R. 3800Rep.

Dina Titus (D-NV-1)Referred to HFAC, H. JudiciaryLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S.

Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. Expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.

And repeals the Mexico City policy by removing certain limitations on eligibility for foreign assistance.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/22/2021H.R. 1201Rep. Alan Lowenthal (D-CA-47)Referred to HFACLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector.

Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/24/2021S. 424Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International viagra Preparedness and erectile dysfunction treatment Response Act of 2021To improve global health, and for other purposes.6/24/2021S. 2297Sen.

James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCviagra preparedness, erectile dysfunction treatment, treatments, WHO, health systems strengthening, CEPI, global health security, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and malariaRequires a report describing certain foreign assistance obligated/expended under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 and a plan for certain remaining funds. Requires development of a strategy to expand access to, and accelerate the global distribution of, erectile dysfunction treatments to other countries. Requires a report that assesses the global humanitarian response to erectile dysfunction treatment and outlines specific elements of the U.S. Government’s country-level response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.

In the event of an infectious disease outbreak outside the U.S. With viagra potential, states the President should designate the Department of State to serve as the lead for diplomatic engagement and related foreign policy efforts, USAID to serve as the key lead agency for design and implementation of the U.S. International response, relief, and recovery assistance, and the CDC to serve as the public health lead for the international response such as building up (in coordination with USAID) emergency operation centers. Allows certain foreign assistance funding to be used to support USAID disaster surge capacity.

Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy and report. Authorizes to be established a committee on global health security and viagra and biological threats within the National Security Council (NSC) led by the Special Advisor for Global Health Security of the NSC. Within the Department of State, establishes a Special Representative for U.S.

International activities to advance global health security and diplomacy overseas, to be appointed by the President and report to the Secretary of State and to lead in developing a global viagra prevention, preparedness and response framework. Authorizes the Representative to transfer and allocate certain U.S. Foreign assistance funding to the relevant departments and agencies implementing the U.S. Global health security strategy.

Authorizes to be appropriated $3 billion for the five-year period beginning Oct. 1, 2022, to support enhancing preparedness in partner countries, replenishing the USAID Emergency Reserve Fund, U.S. Contributions to the World Bank Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Multi-Donor Fund, and U.S. Contributions to a new multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism for global health security and viagra prevention and preparedness (see “the Fund” below).

Requires U.S. Global health program leadership identify areas of collaboration and coordination to ensure that such activities contribute to health systems strengthening. Directs the Secretary of State, with the USAID Administrator, to work with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the treatment Alliance, bilateral donors, and others to develop shared core indicators for strengthened health systems. Authorizes the U.S.

To participate in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Expresses Sense of Congress that the President should make an immediate contribution to CEPI of $300 million to expand research and development of treatments to combat the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment variants. Requires an annual National Intelligence Estimate (for five years) regarding the risks posed to the national security interests of the U.S. By the emergence, reemergence, and overseas transmission of pathogens with viagra potential.

Requires the Secretary of State and others to work with WHO and other key stakeholders to establish or strengthen effective early warning systems for infectious disease threats with epidemic and viagra potential. Directs the Secretary of State, with the HHS Secretary, to work with WHO and like-minded member states to adopt an approach toward assessing infectious disease threats under the International Health Regulations (2005) for the WHO to identify and transparently communicate on an ongoing basis varying levels of risk leading up to, and during and after, a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declaration. Directs the Secretary of State and others to seek to enter into negotiations to establish “the Fund;” authorizes the President to make available for U.S. Contributions to the Fund such funds as may be appropriated or otherwise made available for such purpose.

Limits the U.S. Contribution to the Fund to not exceed 33% of the total contributions from all sources.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)6/17/2021H.R. 3988Rep. Theodore Deutch (D-FL-22)Referred to HFACMental health, children in adversity, erectile dysfunction treatmentExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives.

Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members. Requires USAID and the Department of State to integrate such programming across regional bureaus and missions and that it be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on programming.

Requires the OMB Director to brief Congress on the current overall expenditures for this programming in U.S. Foreign assistance in order for Congress to understand the full financial landscape of current programming. [Note. The bill text is not yet available.

This summary is drawn from a description released by the bill’s sponsor).Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)6/17/2021S. 2105Sen. Robert Casey (D-PA)Read twice and referred to SFRCMental health, children in adversity, erectile dysfunction treatmentExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group.

Describes the Group’s duties and members. Requires USAID and the Department of State to integrate such programming across regional bureaus and missions and that it be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on programming. Requires the OMB Director to brief Congress on the current overall expenditures for this programming in U.S.

Foreign assistance in order for Congress to understand the full financial landscape of current programming. [Note. The bill text is not yet available. This summary is drawn from a description released by the bill’s sponsor).Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act)To establish a program to oversee the global erectile dysfunction treatment response and prepare for future viagras, and for other purposes.6/8/2021H.R.

3778Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL-8)Referred to HFAC and H. Energy and Commerceerectile dysfunction treatment, global health security, viagra preparedness and responseEstablishes the viagra preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra and protect Americans from the emergence of erectile dysfunction treatment variants and other pathogens with viagra potential.

Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future viagras. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future viagras. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S.

Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S.

Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act) To establish a program to oversee the global erectile dysfunction treatment response and prepare for future viagras, and for other purposes.6/8/2021S. 1976Sen.

Jeff Merkley (D-OR)Read twice and referred to SFRCerectile dysfunction treatment, global health security, viagra preparedness and responseEstablishes the viagra preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra and protect Americans from the emergence of erectile dysfunction treatment variants and other pathogens with viagra potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future viagras.

Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future viagras. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible.

Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S.

Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Preventing Foreign Attempts To Erode Healthcare Innovation ActTo prohibit the use of funds to support a measure at the World Trade Organization waiving intellectual property rights, and for other purposes.5/18/2021S. 1683Sen. Tim Scott (R-SC)Read twice and referred to S. FinanceTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, erectile dysfunction treatmentsExpresses Sense of Congress that U.S.

Should continue to promote strong international [sic] property rights internationally and that it is in the national interest of the U.S. To oppose efforts to transfer U.S. Intellectual property and technology to China or other countries seeking to profit off U.S. Investments.

Prohibits use of funds to support, allow, or facilitate the negotiation or approval of the TRIPS waiver for the prevention, containment, and treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment proposed by India and South Africa or any other measure at the WTO to waive intellectual property rights.Preventing Future viagras Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/4/2021H.R. 151Rep. Mike Quigley (D-IL-5)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy and Commerce, H.

Judiciary, H. Ways and Means, H. Financial Services, H. Natural ResourcesGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement.

Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities.

Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Preventing Future viagras Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/25/2021S. 37Sen.

John Cornyn (R-TX)Read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets.

Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities. Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021H.R.

534Rep. Virginia Foxx (R-NC-5)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S.

To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021S. 137Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021.

See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S. To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Reach Every Mother and Child ActTo amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to implement policies to end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths globally.4/29/2021S. 1451Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)Read twice and referred to SFRCMaternal health, child healthIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy to establish and implement a coordinated, integrated, and comprehensive strategy to end preventable child and maternal deaths and ensure healthy and productive lives. Requires the establishment and implementation of a five-year comprehensive strategy to contribute toward the global goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths by 2030. States the President should designate a Child and Maternal Survival Coordinator and describes their duties. Requires an annual report on progress.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/28/2021H.R.

3576Rep. Katherine Clark (D-MA-5)Referred to HFACState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country.

Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/26/2021S. 1864Sen.

Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning.

Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Robust International Response to viagra ActTo provide support for a robust global response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.2/11/2021H.R. 986Rep. Jesus “Chuy” Garcia (D-IL-4)Referred to H.

Financial Serviceserectile dysfunction treatmentDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Securing America From Epidemics Act(SAFE Act) To authorize United States participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and for other purposes.3/23/2021H.R. 2118Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote)Research &.

Development (R&D), global health security, viagra, epidemicAuthorizes U.S. Participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI). Reports to Congress required to be submitted by the President not later than 180 days after enactment of the Act and to outline planned U.S. Contributions to CEPI, the manner and extent to which the U.S.

Will participate in the governance of CEPI, and how participation in CEPI supports relevant U.S. Strategies and programs in health security and biodefense, among other things. Authorizes certain appropriated funding to be made available for U.S. Contributions to CEPI.Strategic Competition Act of 2021To address issues involving the People’s Republic of China.

4/15/2021S. 1169Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orderserectile dysfunction treatment, health cooperation, WHO, global health security, abortion, forced sterilization, debt reliefExpresses sense of Congress that the U.S. Government should encourage other foreign governments to use the official and scientific names for the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.

States U.S. Policy is to deepen cooperation between and among the U.S., Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia, including through scientific and health partnerships. Expresses sense of Congress that recent pledge from the first-ever Quad (Australia, India, Japan, U.S.) leaders meeting on March 12, 2021, to respond to the economic and health impacts of erectile dysfunction treatment, including expanding treatment production and equitable access, further advances cooperation among Quad nations. States it is U.S.

Policy to stand with the nations of ASEAN as they respond to erectile dysfunction treatment and support greater cooperation in building capacity to prepare for and respond to viagras and other public health challenges. States it is U.S. Policy to advocate and actively advance Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the World Health Assembly, among other bodies. Requires report on the origins of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra to be submitted by the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of State, HHS Secretary, and others, not later than 180 days after enactment.

Requires strategies that describe how the U.S. Will enhance cooperation with Canada, the European Union, NATO, and European partner countries in managing relations with China, including detailing diplomatic efforts to work with them to track and counter Chinese attempts to exert influence across the multilateral system, including at WHO. Requires a strategy for countering and limiting Chinese influence in, and access to, the Middle East and North Africa, including efforts to encourage U.S. Private sector and public-private partnerships in healthcare technology, among other things.

States it is U.S. Policy to work with Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to advance shared alliance goals of the Oceania region concerning health, among other things, and to improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Address the imposition of sanctions with respect to systematic rape, coercive abortion, forced sterilization, or involuntary contraceptive implantation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Addresses reporting related to debt relief via the International Development Association (IDA) for certain countries to respond to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Support for Global Financial Institution viagra Response Act of 2021To support efforts by international financial institutions to provide a robust global response to the erectile dysfunction treatment–19 viagra.1/27/2021S.

67Sen. Richard Durbin (D-IL)Read twice and referred to SFRCerectile dysfunction treatmentDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Support UNFPA Funding ActTo authorize contributions to the United Nations Population Fund, and for other purposes.6/16/2021H.R. 3938Rep.

Chrissy Houlahan (D-PA-6)Referred to HFACUNFPA, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH)Includes statement of U.S. Policy regarding financial support for UNFPA as a crucial part of U.S. Global health commitment. Authorizes appropriations for five years for an annual contribution to UNFPA to support core functions and programs.To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to require the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be responsible for viagra prevention and response, and for other purposes.2/8/2021S.

290Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to HSGACviagraRequires the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be the permanent coordinator for viagra prevention and response for the federal government, outlines duties, and grants them authority to represent the U.S. In bilateral and multilateral discussions and agreements on relevant matters.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.2/18/2021H.R. 1145Rep.

Young Kim (R-CA-39)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute by Voice Vote)WHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.3/17/2021S. 812Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCWHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To prohibit the use of funds to seek membership in the World Health Organization or to provide assessed or voluntary contributions to the World Health Organization.1/28/2021H.R. 497Rep.

Jodey Arrington (R-TX-19)Referred to HFACWHOProhibits the use of federal funds to seek membership by the U.S. In WHO or to provide assessed or voluntary U.S. Contributions to WHO until such time as the President certifies that WHO meets certain conditions, including. WHO has adopted meaningful reforms to ensure that humanitarian assistance is not politicized and is to be provided to those with the most need, WHO is not under the control or significant malign influence of the Chinese Communist party, WHO is not involved in a coverup of the Chinese Communist Party’s response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, WHO grants observer status to Taiwan, WHO does not divert humanitarian or medical supplies to Iran, North Korea, or Syria, and WHO has put in place mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability in its operations and eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse.United States Climate Leadership in International Mitigation, Adaptation, and Technology Enhancement Act of 2021(U.S.

CLIMATE Act) To restore the United States international leadership on climate change and clean energy, and for other purposes. 4/19/2021S. 1201Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCClimate change, global healthRequires the Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant agencies, to conduct biennial comprehensive evaluations of present and ongoing disruptions to the global climate system, including the scarcity of global natural resources including fresh water, global food, health, and energy insecurities and conditions that contribute to gender-based violence, among other things.

Requires these evaluations to be used by the Secretary of State to inform the development and implementation of a climate security strategy, and to develop and implement plans to account for the impacts of climate change on global human health, fresh water, and marginalized groups. States U.S. Policy is to ensure that the International Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Security Program (required to be established under the act by the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of USAID) provide resources to developing countries to support efforts that reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience capacities of communities to the effects of climate change, including effects on water availability and health and diseases. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to use the influence of the U.S.

To ensure that the Green Climate Fund requires country recipients to submit investment plan that describes how adaptation projects will advance public health outcomes, among other things. Incorporates the Women and Climate Change Act.Uyghur Stop Oppressive Sterilizations Act(Uyghur SOS Act) To address state-sanctioned violence against women in the People’s Republic of China, including rape and torture in detention and forced sterilizations, forced abortions, and other coercive birth restriction policies, particularly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and for other purposes.5/18/2021H.R. 3306Rep. Vicky HartzlerReferred to HFAC and H.

JudiciaryForced sterilization, abortionStates U.S. Policy is to regard the prevention of genocide and other atrocity crimes as a national interest particularly when those actions target certain groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region through, among other things, forced sterilizations, forced abortions and other coercive birth restrictions policies, and sexual violence and other torture in detention, to raise the issue of state-sanctioned violence against women, including rape, torture, and coercively enforced population control policies in China in all multilateral organizations where the U.S. And China are members, including at the U.N. Security Council, and to consider state-sanctioned violence against women, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and the systematic use of rape and torture in mass internment camps in the Region as a gross violation of internationally-recognized human rights.

Expresses the Sense of Congress that all governments, including the U.S., and international organizations, such as the U.N., should call the atrocities perpetuated by the government of China, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and other sexual violence, as genocide and crimes against humanity and that the U.S. Should strongly condemn the intimidation and threats targeting Uyghur and Kazakh women who provide public evidence of sexual violence and forced sterilizations and forced abortions in mass internment camps and the journalist who report these stories. Also expresses Sense of Congress that U.N. Member states should condemn such atrocities by demanding that China end all forced sterilization, forced abortions, and other state-sanctioned violence against women, among other things.

Requires the president to submit a strategy for ending atrocity crimes in the Region. Requires the Secretary of State to provide all appropriate assistance to women who belong to certain groups and who experienced sexual violence, torture, forced sterilizations and forced abortions in China in order for them to receive needed medical care and psychological support. Requires all existing authorities to be used to allow such women to at least temporarily enter the U.S.Women and Climate Change Act of 2021To address the disparate impact of climate change on women and support the efforts of women globally to address climate change, and for other purposes.1/11/2021H.R. 260Rep.

Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy &. CommerceClimate change, global health, reproductive healthAddresses climate change and its effects on women and girls. Establishes the Federal Interagency Working Group on Women and Climate Change within the Department of State and outlines its functions, such as identifying best practices for collecting data on the disparate impact of climate change on women – including in access to comprehensive health care, including reproductive health and rights.

Requires the Department of State’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (GWI) to submit a strategy (and shortly thereafter an implementation plan and budget) to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change on women, including effective action to promote public health. Requires the Ambassador-at-Large of GWI to designate a Senior Coordinator for Women and Climate Change. Requires the GWI Ambassador and the Senior Coordinator to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the human and financial resources necessary to carry out the Act.World Health Organization Accountability ActTo prohibit the availability of United States contributions to the World Health Organization until Congress receives a full report on China and the erectile dysfunction treatment–19 viagra, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 374Rep.

Lauren Boebert (R-CO-3)Referred to HFACWHO, erectile dysfunction treatmentProhibits the use of federal funds for U.S. Contributions to WHO or U.S. Participation in any of the activities of WHO until the Secretary of State and HHS Secretary jointly submit a report to Congress describing the manner and extent to which the handling of the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak prior to March 11, 2020, by WHO and China contributed to the emergency of the viagra.NOTES. SFRC means Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

HFAC means the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. H. Means House. S.

Means Senate. SFOPS means Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs. LGBTI means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. WHO is the World Health Organization.

ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. * Other than those that apply to U.S. NGOs receiving certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act..

About This TrackerThis tracker provides the number of confirmed get viagra online cases and deaths from novel erectile dysfunction by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, http://www.wolf-garden.nl/generic-ventolin-price/ and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) erectile dysfunction Resource Center’s erectile dysfunction treatment Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) erectile dysfunction Disease (erectile dysfunction treatment-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About erectile dysfunction treatment erectile dysfunctionIn late 2019, a new erectile dysfunction emerged in central China get viagra online to cause disease in humans.

Cases of this disease, known as erectile dysfunction treatment, have since been reported across around the globe. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the viagra represents a public health emergency get viagra online of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.Global Health Legislation During the 117th Congress(as of June 30, 2021)TitleDate IntroducedBill #SponsorStatusTopicSummary of Global Health-Related ProvisionsAbortion is Health Care Everywhere Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the use of funds for comprehensive reproductive health care services, and for other purposes.3/9/2021H.R.

1670Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-IL-9)Referred to HFACAbortion, Helms amendmentIncludes statement of get viagra online U.S. Policy regarding safe abortion and working to end unsafe abortion.

Repeals the Helms Amendment (which prohibits the use of foreign assistance to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice get viagra online abortion). States that notwithstanding any other provision of law, certain funds may be used to provide comprehensive reproductive health care services, including abortion services, training, and equipment.Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act of 2021To establish an interagency One Health Program, and for other purposes.3/18/2021S. 861Sen.

Tina Smith (D-MN)Read twice and referred get viagra online to S. HELPOne Health, global health securityRequires the heads of HHS, USDA, USAID, DoD, and certain other agencies to develop, publish, and submit to Congress a national One Health Framework for coordinated federal activities under the One Health Program not later than one year after enactment. Among other things, states the framework must describe existing efforts and contain recommendations for building upon and complementing the activities of the CDC, the FDA, USAID, NIH, and certain others and also establish specific federal goals and priorities and describe specific activities required to achieve get viagra online these.

Requires the submission of an addendum to the framework not later than three years after its original submission, describing progress in advancing these activities. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as necessary to develop the framework above. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress not later than two years after the addendum is submitted, detailing existing get viagra online collaborative efforts among certain agencies for this purpose and containing an evaluation of the framework and its specified activities.American Medical Investment Generating Overseas Security Act(AMIGOS Act)To prohibit the President from taking any action to support the waiver of obligations of members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment–19 unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment–19, and for other purposes.5/14/2021H.R.

3236Maria Elvira Salazar (R-FL-27)Referred to HFAC and H. Ways and MeansTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, erectile dysfunction treatmentsStates the President may not take any action to support waiver of obligations of WRO members under the TRIPS agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such get viagra online a waiver with respect to such. Requires the President to allocate excess U.S.

erectile dysfunction treatments in a specified order of priority, with certain exceptions, and to monitor the allocation of such to ensure assisted governments provide treatments to their peoples in a timely manner and do not otherwise withhold them. Requires such treatments provided to foreign countries to be marked as assistance get viagra online from the American people or the U.S. Government and to include a depiction of the flag of the U.S.

If appropriate.American Rescue Plan Act of 2021To provide for reconciliation pursuant to title get viagra online II of S. Con. Res.

5.2/24/2021H.R. 1319Rep. John Yarmuth (D-KY-3)Became law (P.L.

117-2)erectile dysfunction treatment, Global FundSee KFF summary.American Values ActTo permanently enact certain appropriations Act restrictions on the use of funds for abortions and involuntary sterilizations, and for other purposes.2/4/2021S. 239Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, involuntary sterilization amendment, Siljander amendment, Kemp-Kasten amendment, Peace Corps provision, Helms amendment, Biden amendmentAmends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to codify in permanent law the Siljander amendment, which prohibits the use of funds to lobby for or against abortion, and the Kemp-Kasten amendment, which prohibits funding any organization or program, as determined by the President, that supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization.

Restates the Helms amendment, the Involuntary Sterilization amendment (which prohibits the use of funds to pay for involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide a financial incentive to anyone to undergo sterilization), and the Biden amendment (which states that funds may not be used for biomedical research related to methods of or the performance of abortion or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning) that are already in permanent law. Also amends the Peace Corps Act to codify in permanent law the Peace Corps provision, which prohibits Peace Corps funding from paying for an abortion for a Peace Corps volunteer or trainee, except in cases where the life of the woman is endangered by pregnancy or in cases of rape or incest. In the past these have been included only in annual State-Foreign Operations appropriations language.

See also the KFF fact sheet on FP/RH statutory requirements and policies and the KFF explainer on UNFPA funding and Kemp-Kasten.Binational Health Strategies Act of 2021To amend the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission Act, with respect to preparedness for erectile dysfunction treatment–19 and other infectious diseases in the border region, and for other purposes.3/03/2021H.R. 1538Rep.. Veronica Escobar (D-TX-16)Referred to H.

Energy and HFACMexicoAuthorizes and directs the President to seek to begin negotiations with Mexico to amend an existing agreement addressing infectious disease preparedness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area, with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment and other infectious diseases, specifically requiring the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to submit a report on the border area’s response to erectile dysfunction treatment and requiring it to also develop and publicly publish a binational strategic plan that addresses how the area should strengthen its erectile dysfunction treatment response, sharing relevant health data, and how a erectile dysfunction treatment should be disbursed throughout the area, among other things. Requires the Commission to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of the strategic plan and then to submit a report on actions taken each year.

Requires the Commission to develop and publish a plan to prepare and respond to infectious diseases (other than erectile dysfunction treatment) within the border area, to update the plan at least once every three years for as long as necessary, and to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of this plan, with a report on actions taken each year required to be submitted.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/17/2021H.R. 3271Rep.

Matt Cartwright (D-PA-8)Referred to H. Energy and CommerceClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations.

Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change.

Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/19/2021S.

1702Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to S. HELPClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S.

And other nations. Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change.

Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health.

And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021H.R. 556Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan.

2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S.

Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021S. 142Sen.

Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S.

Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health Security Act of 2021To authorize a comprehensive, strategic approach for United States foreign assistance to developing countries to strengthen global health security, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R.

391Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA-11)Passed HouseGlobal health security, global health emergenciesStates it is U.S. Policy to promote and invest in global health security and viagra preparedness as a core national security interest.

Establishes a Global Health Security Agenda Interagency Review Council, designates members, responsibilities, and frequency of meetings. Designates a U.S. Coordinator for Global Health Security responsible for coordination of the interagency process for responding to global health security emergencies.

Express Sense of Congress that the President should consider appointing an individual with significant background and expertise in public health or emergency response management to such position. Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy, its implementation (including agency-specific plans), and an annual report on status of implementation.

Directs the Secretary of State, Treasury Secretary, USAID Administrator, and HHS Secretary, among others, to seek to enter into negotiations with donors, relevant U.N. Agencies (including WHO), and other stakeholders to establish a fund for global health security and viagra preparedness as a multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism. Describes Fund’s Advisory Board, purpose, Executive Board and its makeup and duties.

Creates a Coordinator of U.S. Government activities to advance global health security, who shall be appointed by the President to represent the U.S. On the Executive Board.

Outlines eligible partner country definition and Fund program objectives, supported activities, administration, including appointment of an Administrator appointed by the Executive Board, and transparency and accountability requirements. Requires reports to Congress on the Fund including a 6 month status report and then annual reports after the Fund’s establishment. And authorizes U.S.

Contributions to the Fund with a limit that the U.S. Share not exceed 33% of total contributions to the Fund cumulatively.Global viagra Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021H.R.

3424Rep. Grace Meng (D-NY-6)Referred to HFACviagra, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security, biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with viagra potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Global viagra Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes.

5/20/2021S.1737Sen. Chris Coons (D-DE)Read twice and referred to SFRCviagra, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security,biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with viagra potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes.

6/9/2021S. 1996Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S.

Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S. Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing.

Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. And expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes.

6/8/2021H.R. 3800Rep. Dina Titus (D-NV-1)Referred to HFAC, H.

JudiciaryLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S.

Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. Expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S.

Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination. And repeals the Mexico City policy by removing certain limitations on eligibility for foreign assistance.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/22/2021H.R. 1201Rep.

Alan Lowenthal (D-CA-47)Referred to HFACLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S.

Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/24/2021S. 424Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International viagra Preparedness and erectile dysfunction treatment Response Act of 2021To improve global health, and for other purposes.6/24/2021S.

2297Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCviagra preparedness, erectile dysfunction treatment, treatments, WHO, health systems strengthening, CEPI, global health security, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and malariaRequires a report describing certain foreign assistance obligated/expended under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 and a plan for certain remaining funds. Requires development of a strategy to expand access to, and accelerate the global distribution of, erectile dysfunction treatments to other countries.

Requires a report that assesses the global humanitarian response to erectile dysfunction treatment and outlines specific elements of the U.S. Government’s country-level response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. In the event of an infectious disease outbreak outside the U.S.

With viagra potential, states the President should designate the Department of State to serve as the lead for diplomatic engagement and related foreign policy efforts, USAID to serve as the key lead agency for design and implementation of the U.S. International response, relief, and recovery assistance, and the CDC to serve as the public health lead for the international response such as building up (in coordination with USAID) emergency operation centers. Allows certain foreign assistance funding to be used to support USAID disaster surge capacity.

Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy and report. Authorizes to be established a committee on global health security and viagra and biological threats within the National Security Council (NSC) led by the Special Advisor for Global Health Security of the NSC.

Within the Department of State, establishes a Special Representative for U.S. International activities to advance global health security and diplomacy overseas, to be appointed by the President and report to the Secretary of State and to lead in developing a global viagra prevention, preparedness and response framework. Authorizes the Representative to transfer and allocate certain U.S.

Foreign assistance funding to the relevant departments and agencies implementing the U.S. Global health security strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $3 billion for the five-year period beginning Oct.

1, 2022, to support enhancing preparedness in partner countries, replenishing the USAID Emergency Reserve Fund, U.S. Contributions to the World Bank Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Multi-Donor Fund, and U.S. Contributions to a new multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism for global health security and viagra prevention and preparedness (see “the Fund” below).

Requires U.S. Global health program leadership identify areas of collaboration and coordination to ensure that such activities contribute to health systems strengthening. Directs the Secretary of State, with the USAID Administrator, to work with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the treatment Alliance, bilateral donors, and others to develop shared core indicators for strengthened health systems.

Authorizes the U.S. To participate in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Expresses Sense of Congress that the President should make an immediate contribution to CEPI of $300 million to expand research and development of treatments to combat the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment variants.

Requires an annual National Intelligence Estimate (for five years) regarding the risks posed to the national security interests of the U.S. By the emergence, reemergence, and overseas transmission of pathogens with viagra potential. Requires the Secretary of State and others to work with WHO and other key stakeholders to establish or strengthen effective early warning systems for infectious disease threats with epidemic and viagra potential.

Directs the Secretary of State, with the HHS Secretary, to work with WHO and like-minded member states to adopt an approach toward assessing infectious disease threats under the International Health Regulations (2005) for the WHO to identify and transparently communicate on an ongoing basis varying levels of risk leading up to, and during and after, a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declaration. Directs the Secretary of State and others to seek to enter into negotiations to establish “the Fund;” authorizes the President to make available for U.S. Contributions to the Fund such funds as may be appropriated or otherwise made available for such purpose.

Limits the U.S. Contribution to the Fund to not exceed 33% of the total contributions from all sources.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)6/17/2021H.R. 3988Rep.

Theodore Deutch (D-FL-22)Referred to HFACMental health, children in adversity, erectile dysfunction treatmentExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members.

Requires USAID and the Department of State to integrate such programming across regional bureaus and missions and that it be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on programming. Requires the OMB Director to brief Congress on the current overall expenditures for this programming in U.S.

Foreign assistance in order for Congress to understand the full financial landscape of current programming. [Note. The bill text is not yet available.

This summary is drawn from a description released by the bill’s sponsor).Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)6/17/2021S. 2105Sen. Robert Casey (D-PA)Read twice and referred to SFRCMental health, children in adversity, erectile dysfunction treatmentExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives.

Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members. Requires USAID and the Department of State to integrate such programming across regional bureaus and missions and that it be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity.

Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on programming. Requires the OMB Director to brief Congress on the current overall expenditures for this programming in U.S. Foreign assistance in order for Congress to understand the full financial landscape of current programming.

[Note. The bill text is not yet available. This summary is drawn from a description released by the bill’s sponsor).Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act)To establish a program to oversee the global erectile dysfunction treatment response and prepare for future viagras, and for other purposes.6/8/2021H.R.

3778Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL-8)Referred to HFAC and H. Energy and Commerceerectile dysfunction treatment, global health security, viagra preparedness and responseEstablishes the viagra preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S.

Global health response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra and protect Americans from the emergence of erectile dysfunction treatment variants and other pathogens with viagra potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future viagras.

Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future viagras. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S.

treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S.

Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act) To establish a program to oversee the global erectile dysfunction treatment response and prepare for future viagras, and for other purposes.6/8/2021S.

1976Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR)Read twice and referred to SFRCerectile dysfunction treatment, global health security, viagra preparedness and responseEstablishes the viagra preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra and protect Americans from the emergence of erectile dysfunction treatment variants and other pathogens with viagra potential.

Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future viagras. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future viagras.

Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible.

Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally.

Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Preventing Foreign Attempts To Erode Healthcare Innovation ActTo prohibit the use of funds to support a measure at the World Trade Organization waiving intellectual property rights, and for other purposes.5/18/2021S. 1683Sen.

Tim Scott (R-SC)Read twice and referred to S. FinanceTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, erectile dysfunction treatmentsExpresses Sense of Congress that U.S. Should continue to promote strong international [sic] property rights internationally and that it is in the national interest of the U.S.

To oppose efforts to transfer U.S. Intellectual property and technology to China or other countries seeking to profit off U.S. Investments.

Prohibits use of funds to support, allow, or facilitate the negotiation or approval of the TRIPS waiver for the prevention, containment, and treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment proposed by India and South Africa or any other measure at the WTO to waive intellectual property rights.Preventing Future viagras Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/4/2021H.R. 151Rep. Mike Quigley (D-IL-5)Referred to HFAC, H.

Energy and Commerce, H. Judiciary, H. Ways and Means, H.

Financial Services, H. Natural ResourcesGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health.

States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities.

Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Preventing Future viagras Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/25/2021S.

37Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX)Read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health.

States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities.

Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021H.R.

534Rep. Virginia Foxx (R-NC-5)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021.

See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S. To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021S. 137Sen.

Mike Lee (R-UT)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S.

To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Reach Every Mother and Child ActTo amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to implement policies to end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths globally.4/29/2021S. 1451Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)Read twice and referred to SFRCMaternal health, child healthIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy to establish and implement a coordinated, integrated, and comprehensive strategy to end preventable child and maternal deaths and ensure healthy and productive lives. Requires the establishment and implementation of a five-year comprehensive strategy to contribute toward the global goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths by 2030. States the President should designate a Child and Maternal Survival Coordinator and describes their duties.

Requires an annual report on progress.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/28/2021H.R. 3576Rep. Katherine Clark (D-MA-5)Referred to HFACState Dept.

Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning.

Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/26/2021S. 1864Sen.

Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country.

Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Robust International Response to viagra ActTo provide support for a robust global response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.2/11/2021H.R.

986Rep. Jesus “Chuy” Garcia (D-IL-4)Referred to H. Financial Serviceserectile dysfunction treatmentDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S.

Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Securing America From Epidemics Act(SAFE Act) To authorize United States participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and for other purposes.3/23/2021H.R. 2118Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote)Research &.

Development (R&D), global health security, viagra, epidemicAuthorizes U.S. Participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI). Reports to Congress required to be submitted by the President not later than 180 days after enactment of the Act and to outline planned U.S.

Contributions to CEPI, the manner and extent to which the U.S. Will participate in the governance of CEPI, and how participation in CEPI supports relevant U.S. Strategies and programs in health security and biodefense, among other things.

Authorizes certain appropriated funding to be made available for U.S. Contributions to CEPI.Strategic Competition Act of 2021To address issues involving the People’s Republic of China. 4/15/2021S.

1169Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orderserectile dysfunction treatment, health cooperation, WHO, global health security, abortion, forced sterilization, debt reliefExpresses sense of Congress that the U.S. Government should encourage other foreign governments to use the official and scientific names for the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.

States U.S. Policy is to deepen cooperation between and among the U.S., Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia, including through scientific and health partnerships. Expresses sense of Congress that recent pledge from the first-ever Quad (Australia, India, Japan, U.S.) leaders meeting on March 12, 2021, to respond to the economic and health impacts of erectile dysfunction treatment, including expanding treatment production and equitable access, further advances cooperation among Quad nations.

States it is U.S. Policy to stand with the nations of ASEAN as they respond to erectile dysfunction treatment and support greater cooperation in building capacity to prepare for and respond to viagras and other public health challenges. States it is U.S.

Policy to advocate and actively advance Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the World Health Assembly, among other bodies. Requires report on the origins of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra to be submitted by the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of State, HHS Secretary, and others, not later than 180 days after enactment. Requires strategies that describe how the U.S.

Will enhance cooperation with Canada, the European Union, NATO, and European partner countries in managing relations with China, including detailing diplomatic efforts to work with them to track and counter Chinese attempts to exert influence across the multilateral system, including at WHO. Requires a strategy for countering and limiting Chinese influence in, and access to, the Middle East and North Africa, including efforts to encourage U.S. Private sector and public-private partnerships in healthcare technology, among other things.

States it is U.S. Policy to work with Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to advance shared alliance goals of the Oceania region concerning health, among other things, and to improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Address the imposition of sanctions with respect to systematic rape, coercive abortion, forced sterilization, or involuntary contraceptive implantation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Addresses reporting related to debt relief via the International Development Association (IDA) for certain countries to respond to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Support for Global Financial Institution viagra Response Act of 2021To support efforts by international financial institutions to provide a robust global response to the erectile dysfunction treatment–19 viagra.1/27/2021S. 67Sen. Richard Durbin (D-IL)Read twice and referred to SFRCerectile dysfunction treatmentDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S.

Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra.Support UNFPA Funding ActTo authorize contributions to the United Nations Population Fund, and for other purposes.6/16/2021H.R. 3938Rep. Chrissy Houlahan (D-PA-6)Referred to HFACUNFPA, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH)Includes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding financial support for UNFPA as a crucial part of U.S. Global health commitment. Authorizes appropriations for five years for an annual contribution to UNFPA to support core functions and programs.To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to require the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be responsible for viagra prevention and response, and for other purposes.2/8/2021S.

290Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to HSGACviagraRequires the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be the permanent coordinator for viagra prevention and response for the federal government, outlines duties, and grants them authority to represent the U.S. In bilateral and multilateral discussions and agreements on relevant matters.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.2/18/2021H.R.

1145Rep. Young Kim (R-CA-39)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute by Voice Vote)WHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.3/17/2021S. 812Sen.

Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCWHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To prohibit the use of funds to seek membership in the World Health Organization or to provide assessed or voluntary contributions to the World Health Organization.1/28/2021H.R. 497Rep. Jodey Arrington (R-TX-19)Referred to HFACWHOProhibits the use of federal funds to seek membership by the U.S.

In WHO or to provide assessed or voluntary U.S. Contributions to WHO until such time as the President certifies that WHO meets certain conditions, including. WHO has adopted meaningful reforms to ensure that humanitarian assistance is not politicized and is to be provided to those with the most need, WHO is not under the control or significant malign influence of the Chinese Communist party, WHO is not involved in a coverup of the Chinese Communist Party’s response to the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, WHO grants observer status to Taiwan, WHO does not divert humanitarian or medical supplies to Iran, North Korea, or Syria, and WHO has put in place mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability in its operations and eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse.United States Climate Leadership in International Mitigation, Adaptation, and Technology Enhancement Act of 2021(U.S.

CLIMATE Act) To restore the United States international leadership on climate change and clean energy, and for other purposes. 4/19/2021S. 1201Sen.

Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCClimate change, global healthRequires the Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant agencies, to conduct biennial comprehensive evaluations of present and ongoing disruptions to the global climate system, including the scarcity of global natural resources including fresh water, global food, health, and energy insecurities and conditions that contribute to gender-based violence, among other things. Requires these evaluations to be used by the Secretary of State to inform the development and implementation of a climate security strategy, and to develop and implement plans to account for the impacts of climate change on global human health, fresh water, and marginalized groups. States U.S.

Policy is to ensure that the International Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Security Program (required to be established under the act by the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of USAID) provide resources to developing countries to support efforts that reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience capacities of communities to the effects of climate change, including effects on water availability and health and diseases. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to use the influence of the U.S. To ensure that the Green Climate Fund requires country recipients to submit investment plan that describes how adaptation projects will advance public health outcomes, among other things.

Incorporates the Women and Climate Change Act.Uyghur Stop Oppressive Sterilizations Act(Uyghur SOS Act) To address state-sanctioned violence against women in the People’s Republic of China, including rape and torture in detention and forced sterilizations, forced abortions, and other coercive birth restriction policies, particularly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and for other purposes.5/18/2021H.R. 3306Rep. Vicky HartzlerReferred to HFAC and H.

JudiciaryForced sterilization, abortionStates U.S. Policy is to regard the prevention of genocide and other atrocity crimes as a national interest particularly when those actions target certain groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region through, among other things, forced sterilizations, forced abortions and other coercive birth restrictions policies, and sexual violence and other torture in detention, to raise the issue of state-sanctioned violence against women, including rape, torture, and coercively enforced population control policies in China in all multilateral organizations where the U.S. And China are members, including at the U.N.

Security Council, and to consider state-sanctioned violence against women, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and the systematic use of rape and torture in mass internment camps in the Region as a gross violation of internationally-recognized human rights. Expresses the Sense of Congress that all governments, including the U.S., and international organizations, such as the U.N., should call the atrocities perpetuated by the government of China, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and other sexual violence, as genocide and crimes against humanity and that the U.S. Should strongly condemn the intimidation and threats targeting Uyghur and Kazakh women who provide public evidence of sexual violence and forced sterilizations and forced abortions in mass internment camps and the journalist who report these stories.

Also expresses Sense of Congress that U.N. Member states should condemn such atrocities by demanding that China end all forced sterilization, forced abortions, and other state-sanctioned violence against women, among other things. Requires the president to submit a strategy for ending atrocity crimes in the Region.

Requires the Secretary of State to provide all appropriate assistance to women who belong to certain groups and who experienced sexual violence, torture, forced sterilizations and forced abortions in China in order for them to receive needed medical care and psychological support. Requires all existing authorities to be used to allow such women to at least temporarily enter the U.S.Women and Climate Change Act of 2021To address the disparate impact of climate change on women and support the efforts of women globally to address climate change, and for other purposes.1/11/2021H.R. 260Rep.

Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy &. CommerceClimate change, global health, reproductive healthAddresses climate change and its effects on women and girls.

Establishes the Federal Interagency Working Group on Women and Climate Change within the Department of State and outlines its functions, such as identifying best practices for collecting data on the disparate impact of climate change on women – including in access to comprehensive health care, including reproductive health and rights. Requires the Department of State’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (GWI) to submit a strategy (and shortly thereafter an implementation plan and budget) to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change on women, including effective action to promote public health. Requires the Ambassador-at-Large of GWI to designate a Senior Coordinator for Women and Climate Change.

Requires the GWI Ambassador and the Senior Coordinator to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the human and financial resources necessary to carry out the Act.World Health Organization Accountability ActTo prohibit the availability of United States contributions to the World Health Organization until Congress receives a full report on China and the erectile dysfunction treatment–19 viagra, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 374Rep. Lauren Boebert (R-CO-3)Referred to HFACWHO, erectile dysfunction treatmentProhibits the use of federal funds for U.S.

Contributions to WHO or U.S. Participation in any of the activities of WHO until the Secretary of State and HHS Secretary jointly submit a report to Congress describing the manner and extent to which the handling of the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak prior to March 11, 2020, by WHO and China contributed to the emergency of the viagra.NOTES. SFRC means Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

HFAC means the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. H. Means House.

S. Means Senate. SFOPS means Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs.

LGBTI means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. WHO is the World Health Organization. ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

* Other than those that apply to U.S. NGOs receiving certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act..